THE THEOCRATIC ORDER OF THE NYAHBINGHI REIGN
The Nyahbinghi, has its origins in Uganda, where a fierce group of Warriors successfully fought against colonialism in the last quarter of the 19th century in 1600. Their society was based on the veneration of the Goddess spirit, Queen Nyabinghi. Various oral traditions exist that explain how Queen Nyabinghi became revered as a Goddess. One tradition states that Queen Nyabinghi ruled the northwestern Tanzania Kingdom of Karagwe and married the chief of Mpororo from the southwestern Kingdom of Uganda. Envious of the Queens power, the ruler ordered her death, which is said to have brought untold horrors to his kingdom. After her death, Queen Nyabinghis spirit continued to be praised and inspired her followers for the next two centuries. They became known as the Nyabinghi and said to thrive and get their strength due to the invoking of the Goddess spirit Nyabinghi through dance, drumming, chanting and spiritual seances.
During the earlier years of European occupation of Africa, the Nyabinghi was a revolutionary order devoted to banishing the Europeans from Africa and preserving the spiritual and cultural integrity of the ancient African way of life. Although very little was publicly known about the order, Nyabinghi brothers and sisters were noted for their royal appearance, proud demeanour and uncompromising stance against white supremacy in any form. It is important to note that from its inception Nyabinghi has been Pan-African in scope, with known branches having existed in Uganda, Nigeria, Angola, Sudan, Kenya, and more...
During a big fight with the colonialists many Nyabinghi were captured and taken to Jamaica around 1653, there the fighting kept on going and together with the Maroons were very successful in keeping their freedom on the Island. In 1738 a peace treaty was signed between the Maroons and slave masters, but the Nyabinghi rightfully so refused at this time because they had no trust in them, which later became true as the slave masters didn't stick to their agreements. The Nyabinghi kept on fighting and in doing so had an important role with the official abolition of slavery in Jamaica in 1833. After this they laid down their arms and lived a peaceful live in the hills of Jamaica mostly as farmers.
When Leonard Howell began to preach about Ras Tafari Emperor Haile Selassie I in 1930, he found much interest from the Nyabinghi who hadn't forgotten His Majesties gesture of giving the Nyabinghi a save haven in Ethiopia after british persecution.
In 1928 british colonial forces banned the Nyabinghi, charging the order with treason against the english crown. Many Nyabinghi brothers and sisters were imprisoned and/or executed in captivity at that time. Emperor Haile Selassie I gave the Nyabinghi a permanent home in Ethiopia while in the rest of colonial Africa the order was driven underground. So in 1930 after His Imperial Majesties coronation, Emperor Haile Selassie I became the Supreme Commander for the Nyabinghi, joining forces with Leonard Howell and settled in Pinnacle, a self sustaining Rastafari Community living in the hills of Jamaica. After Pinnacle the movement split into different groups with one of them being The Dread Lock congregation of the Youth Black Faith (YBF) and soon after took on the name Nyahbinghi because many of its members had Nyabinghi roots .
The Nyahbinghi Order is sometimes seen as the primary mansion of the Rastafari Livity. Since they were there from the inception of the movement in Jamaica in the 1930s and was organized in such to maintain close attachments between the followers of the Rastafari faith and InI African heritage. The Order is internationally recognized and is practiced in several African states, the West Indies and the Americas by African descendants. In Jamaica, the Nyahbinghi Order features many African customs and traditions in support of repatriation to Africa. Nyahbinghi meeting grounds can be found around the island and other places around the world where Tabernacles are arranged and Binghis or Gatherings are held . This includes the centre in Scotts Pass, Manchester that was purchased by the Honourable Robert Nesta Marley and given to the members of the Order there.
His Imperial Majesty Emperor Haile Selassie I is the focal point for the Nyahbinghi. His Majesty is acknowledged as the returned Messiah and the only true and living YAH. We have faith in a global Theocracy to be headed by Emperor Haile Selassie I, whom we proclaim to be the incarnation of the Supreme Deity YAHWEH or YAH, and will return one day and establish Zion on Earth. We live by the teachings of His Majesty and therefore also the Ible, but through its origins we are mostly a spiritual Warrior type of order and hold on less to the Ible then the other Mansions, or not at all by some members.
Origins of the name Nyahbinghi
As mentioned before The Nyahbinghi Order has its origins in Uganda with Queen Nyabinghi. Nya translates as Black and Binghi, Victory. After the inception of Ras Tafari the name changed over the years to Nyahbinghi, Niyahbinghi Iyahbinghi and is also known as the Haile Selassie I Theocratic order of the Nyahbinghi Reign. It changed from Nyabinghi to Nyahbinghi to bring more focus on His Majesty in the name YAH.
In its early stages the Nyahbinghi slogan was Death to white oppressors, the enemies of the African Race and later changed to "Death to All downpressors both black and white".
To some this may sound a bit aggressive for such a peaceful and loving movement, but it should be overstood well before there are any misconceptions. In its spiritual form, the Nyahbinghi is a Cleansing order fighting against oppression and injustice, and there is a lot of that still going on, especially against Rastafari because of the strength we have, which will always be attacked by the powers trying to stay in charge. However, it should be known that the Nyahbinghi do not carry weapons and are non violent. We hold the faith that only YAH has the right and insight to judge another man or woman. Instead we try to live a righteous life so we may be worthy to be listened to when we play the harps (drums) and Chant, giving Praises to the Most High YAH Ras Tafari Emperor Haile Selassie I and ask H.I.M. to execute judgment to the ones who deserves it.
When we say death to the oppressors, we dont mean that we will kill anyone or wish anyone specific dead. It is just by knowing that YAH will judge right and accordingly if someone does evil, and know that death physically and/or spiritually can be his or her punishment. It is just the truth as we know it that we are emphasizing. And is also shared in other faiths, only it is called or explained different, like bad karma or burning in hell for doing bad things.
The Nyahbinghi Order stresses the importance of Chanting and Drumming in praising the Most High YAH RASTAFARI and grounding InI with the Heartbeat of Creation.
The Nyahbinghi Drums or Harps how they are sometimes called are played only by capable Rastafari brethren during the time of chanting. A 'bald head' or non-Rastafari is not permitted to play the drums. Rings must be removed from the fingers of any player of the drums, so as to protect the skins of the drums. The players must be in one accord at all times ensuring perfect harmony. The Trinity of drums we use are: 1, the Bass 2, the Fundeh 3, the Repeater (Akete). The Bass also known as the pope Smasher or vatican Basher.carries the two beat, or Heart Beat 1, 2 in accord with the Fundeh that stands for 'Do Good' 1, 2... the Bass drum strikes loudly on the first beat, and softly on the second. The Repeater repeats the beats in accordance with the Bass and Fundeh but can also play an improvised riddim.
Nyahbinghi drumming is not exclusive to the Nyahbinghi order. The Bobo shanti, Twelve Tribes of Israel as well as the smaller mansions use the one-two Heartbeat riddim in InI livity. It is also the root of Reggae music and other Jamaican music styles.
Nyahbinghi Chanting typically includes recitation of the Psalms, but may also include variations of well-known Christian hymns and also said to be the continuation of the ancient African Livity when they were doing this in Uganda in veneration of Queen Nyahbinghi. There is a lot of spiritual power involved with Chanting, when we Chant the message is carried to the spiritual realms, and there this message is received and executed if it is in accordance with YAH and the Angels. But before something gets executed there must be a request, which comes in the form of chanting. Chanting is also used for veneration which in turn can cause spiritual connections and insights.
The Nyahbinghi place great emphasis on Ethiopia and one of the main desires is to return there, as we hold the faith that this is where all Black people originated from and is called new Jerusalem in the Ible where Zion will be established. Ethiopia to Rastafari is like heaven or paradise. The significance of Ethiopia to the Nyahbinghi is also evident in the flag we use, having the green on top and the Lion in the middle, which was the flag used during His Majesties Reign in Ethiopia. Rastafari from other groups like the Bobo Shanti have the red as the first color on the flag (as in the Ghanaian flag) and a five pointed star in the middle.
Meaning of the colors:
Green (top), symbolic of the vegetation in Ethiopia
Gold (middle), symbolic of the mineral wealth of Ethiopia
Red (bottom), symbolic of the blood of the Ethiopians that was shed while defending their country against the Italians.
The flag should be held high at all times and should not be torn or abused. It must be present at all gatherings and homes and be raised whenever representing His Majesty Emperor Haile Selassie I, Rastafari.
If one looks at the customs of the Nyahbinghi Order, we can see it has its roots in the Ysraylite heritage. From reading the Ible and setting Iselves before the altar with the priests and elders around it, the seven day purification of the woman, raising the Rainbow Covenant Flag, playing the Harps, and by identifying Iselves as the Lost Tribes of Ysrayl, there is no doubt that the Nyahbinghi practices are based on Iblical principles, as well as African. The Nyahbinghi see themselves as the House of Yahuda, while other Rastafari to them, are the rest of the Twelve Tribes.
The Nyahbinghi regard Water, Earth, Air and Fire as representations of the elements of Life. The Fire is to represent the cleansing or wrath of YAH pouring down on babylon and all wicked ones.
An area outside the tabernacle is reserved for the Judgement Fire which is lit at the start of all Nyahbinghi sessions. And Inside the Tabernacle there is also a Fire burning on the Altar which is lit with the Fire Key, and used for ceremonial purpose, this Fire should always kept burning during Bhinghi gatherings.
THE NYAHBINGHI GROUND
The Nyahbinghi ground is made out of a Tabernacle, Lion quarters, Lioness quarters, a store room where food is provided for all at no cost, and sanitary arrangements for both male and female. No flesh can be cooked or eaten on Nyahbinghi ground. The use of alcohol, cigarettes, drugs, and sexual intercourse is strictly forbidden, self discipline must be maintained. Strangers are not permitted the use of cameras and/or recording equipment unless authorized by the House. All man must uncover their heads at a Nyahbinghi gathering. All heads of females must be covered, and the wearing of pants and revealing garments are forbidden. Everyone must be properly clothed. If a person is afflicted with any form of contagious disease or open wounds, he or she is not permitted to be among the Bredren and Sistren. Workshops for art and crafts, and school for the youths are vital structures of the Nyahbinghi Centre.
The Nyahbinghi Order is known for having gatherings called Binghis or Nyahbinghi Grounations. The term "Grounation" means the affirmation of life through earth and is the main type of gathering of the Nyahbinghi. Binghis are spiritual ceremonies held on special days in observance of various events. These Binghis are deemed to be very powerful and prove to be very critical to those whom the chants are focused on. In the Nyahbinghi Order, to Chant Nyahbinghi against an identified oppressor was to invoke the power of YAH to ask for Judgment on an individual or group.
Gatherings/Binghis/Grounations are held on:
January 7, Ethiopian Nativity of Christ
April 3 Anniversary of Empress Menen Earthstrong
April 21, Anniversary of H.I.Ms visit to Jamaica 1966
May 25, Black Liberation Day
July 23, Anniversary of the of H.I.M. Earthstrong (birth day)
August 17, Anniversary of the birth of the Right Honourable Marcus Garvey
September 11, Ethiopian New Year
November 2, Anniversary of the coronation of Emperor Haile Selassie I and Empress Menen
These days are revered as holy days and are free from commercial activities.
A typical Binghi would involve Nyahbinghi from all over the island gathering at one of the sacred grounds. Tents are erected for temporary shelter, a Judgment Fire is made at the camp site. The attendants are expected to be properly clothed, with the women wearing dresses or skirts that cover the knees and the heads of the sisters also have to be covered whereas the men are expected to be bareheaded.
During Binghis brethren and sistren spend their time praising YAH, Chanting, Drumming, Praying, smoking herb, cooking and reasoning. At this time no weapons are allowed on the grounds. There should also be no drinking of alcoholic beverages, lying, cursing or fighting on the grounds as it is viewed to be sacred.
When we enter the Tabernacle, this becomes a time for praise to His Majesty Emperor Haile Selassie I. before we enter the Tabernacle we walk or dance around the Judgment fire seven times in a clockwise circle direction, we throw into the fire any negative feelings or thoughts, then we enter the Tabernacle.
THE TABERNACLE (place of worship)
The Tabernacle is made out of twelve outer posts which represent 1, the twelve patriarchs...2, the twelve gates of New Jerusalem...3, the twelve Tribes of Israel...4, the twelve Apostles. The centre post, the largest of all, represents InI Ivine Majesty Emperor Haile Selassie I as the head of the Nyahbinghi Order. The Roof of the Tabernacle should take the shape of an umbrella. Portraits of H.I.M. decorate the Tabernacle. No weapons, drugs, alcohol, cigarettes or outrageous behaviour is allowed inside. It must be viewed by all as being assembled around the Throne of YAH Rastafari Emperor Haile Selassie I.
The altar which stands in the centre of the Tabernacle consists of six outer posts surrounding the centre post of the Tabernacle representing the book of the Seven Seals / Seven Golden Candlesticks. The priests administrate around this altar which is laid with a covering of Red, Gold and Green. Herbs, Scriptures, Portraits of H.I.M. and fruits are placed upon the altar. The Nyahbinghi Sisters are not permitted to Administrate around this altar. The inner section of the altar should not be used for a sleeping room but can be used for a library or storing things pertaining to the Tabernacle.
Inside the Tabernacle we have InI ceremonial duties. Seven Priests or selected persons form a circle around the altar where the Fire key is lit. The Fire Key is lighted with the reciting of seven Psalms: 1) Psalm 68; 2) Psalm 2; 3) Psalm 83; 4) Psalm 94; 5) Psalm 20; 6) Psalm 11; 7) and Psalm 9. Each Priest recites one of seven specially selected Psalms while the hands are made to form the sign of the Trinity. It is the duty of every brethren to prepare wood for this Fire, which is the consuming Fire for all evildoers irrespective of race, color or creed. No garbage or waste is allowed be thrown in the Fire. The Fire should burn unceasingly during the days of the Nyahbinghi grounation and must not be disturbed; no food should be prepared on this Fire at any time. Both sons and daughters can gather around this Fire for warmth or to Chant for Judgment on babylon.
The significance of the number Seven for the Nyahbinghi is in fulfillment of Prophecy in the Ible, as seven has the Hebrew meaning of completion or perfection. Also it refers to the seven candlesticks around the throne of His Majesty the Supreme Creator. After the opening Psalms are sited and the Judgment Fire is lit we begin to play the Harps or Drums and start to Chant, Sing, Dance, and Burn Herb, in reference for His Majesty. We listen to sermons from ones about the virtues of Rastafari, calls by the Priests for Inity in the community and reasoning's on current matters.
This will go on all night into the next days, the main objective is to gather Rastafari brethren, to give praises to the most High YAH Rastafari and to chant down babylon and all the other evil doers.
Binghis usually last for seven to nine days, sometimes up to two weeks depending on the nature of the Binghi. If the final day falls on a weekend day, then the Binghi will extend until the Monday following the weekend. This is so because cosmic energies flow most strongly on the weekend and thus there are more spiritual forces present, which InI want to Itilize.
Usually the Binghis are strictly African Rastafari gatherings and no one from outside the community can be present, sometimes even only permitted by ones with Dreadlocks.
Followers of the Nyahbinghi Order, as a rule, live by the teachings ordained by His Imperial Majesty, with some guidelines that developed over the years. There are Elders or Priests who assume the responsibility of guiding the members in the way of the Nyahbinghi. These Priests are selected by virtue of the initiative they show. Members of the Order are referred to as Brethren and Sistren.
Nyahbinghi members see themselves to be Ethiopians and as such observe the Ethiopian Sabbath on Tuesdays in accordance with the Ethiopian calender instead with the one used in the west, and will seek to learn the Ethiopian language, Amharic.
PRINCIPLES FOR THE NYAHBINGHI MAN
The Nyahbinghi Man must abide by the laws of His Imperial Majesty. He should abide with One Queen as a perfect example set by His Imperial Majesty Haile Selassie I. The use of flesh, drugs, alcohol and all harmful articles of food must be forbidden by all. The Nyahbinghi Man is nonviolent, non-abusive and non-partisan. He must be free from all criminal activities as a true son of YAH Ras Tafari. Whoredom, adultery, fornication and all sinful acts are an abomination to the Most High, so strictly forbidden. It is the duty -of every Nyahbinghi to see to it that Love and Harmony be maintained on every gathering. A Nyahbinghi Man should not abide with a woman who is not of Rastafari livity. It is the duty of every Nyahbinghi Man to properly maintain his children and raise them in the order of righteousness. Nyahbinghi Man should not trim or comb his children...
PRINCIPLES FOR THE NYAHBINGHI SISTERS
The Nyahbinghi daughters, like the sons must abide by YAH Ivine laws. As H.I.M. is the Head of the Nyahbinghi Order the Nyahbinghi Queen must recognize her King as the Head and must be loyal to her King Head in all things having righteousness at heart. She must abide within her home and not be a "busybody". If there is a misunderstanding between her and her King Man, the matter should be brought before the Priest or Council of Elders who will deal with the matter privately and wisely. A Nyahbinghi Queen is not permitted to play the drums at an Issemble but is permitted to use the Shaka or Timbrel. She is not permitted to administrate around the altar or to prophecy before the congregation. During reasoning she can make suggestions and participate in governmental administration as in the taking of minutes, writing of letters or any other works she is capable of doing. She must be attired in modest apparel at all times and must not wear pants or explosive garments. Her head must be covered during an Issemble or when congregating with brethren or outside her gates. During Issemble the daughters are responsible for the teaching of the children with special emphasis on H.I.M. Haile Selassie I, the Amharic language, Black History and other aspects of Rastafari Ivine livity. During her monthly issue (a period of seven days) the Nyahbinghi Queen does not attend Issemble or congregate among the brethren. Also when a Nyahbinghi Queen brings forth a Prince, she should stay away from Issemble for a period of 3 months. When she brings forth a Princess, she should stay away for a period of 4 months. Eating of abominable flesh must be strictly forbidden by all. The wearing of jewellery is not forbidden but the piercing of the flesh (e.g. ears, nose, etc.) is against the will of YAH. The plaiting of locks is forbidden as it is written in the book of I Peter 3:3, whose adorning let it not be that outward adorning of(e.g. braids, weaves, etc.) the hair.
PRINCIPLES FOR THE PRIESTS
A Priest of the Nyahbinghi Order is ordained by YAH Ras Tafari. This is thus revealed by the individual's works and Ivine livity over a number of years. He must be a man of -Ivine livity with the Nyahbinghi principles as a guideline. The Priests administrate around the Altar of the Tabernacle and lead the congregation in prayer as well as-the sanctification of the new born sons and daughters within the Nyahbinghi Order. The Nyahbinghi Priest can have his Queen as did Aaron, Zadok, etc., but must be one of Ivine qualities, abiding by YAH laws. The Nyahbinghi Priest must be one of justice who carries out his works without partiality. He must maintain an 'Ital, Livity' making sure he does not defile the temple of the living YAH with abominable flesh. The signature of the Nyahbinghi Priest must be added to all official documents of the Order of the Nyahbinghi.
The Nyahbinghi Order is the most ancient within Rastafari, as it is from the earliest time, when Cherubim and Seraphim chanted songs of praise around the Rainbow Circle Throne of the Omnipotent Almighty Majesty of Emperor Haile Selassie I, unto this present day. The Theocracy Reign Order of the Nyahbinghi do uphold this Ivine Order and trust that this message of truth transcends all boundaries as waters cover the seas. With these aspirations InI the Patriarchs of Nyahbinghi in Jamaica do see it necessary to document these guidelines so that InI brothers and sisters be aware of some of the commitments one has to abide by to be in the true covenant of the Nyahbinghi. Righteousness exalteth a nation but sin is a reproach to all people.
Elder Ras Boanerges
InI most Ancient, Main founder of the Youth Black Faith in Jamaica that later became the Nyahbinghi Order. This High Priest was born George Watson, in the parish of St. Mary, later called Ras Boanerges or Elder Bongo Wattu. His ancestors came from the Scott's Hall Maroons of that parish. His mother was a Garveyite. It was from her that he learned to know about himself as an African. The lessons that his Maroon ancestry and his mother taught him assisted to sustain his vision of a Redeemed Africa and his militant fight against "Babylon."
While still in his teens, he sighted the light of Rastafari and as a young man, he founded the Youth Black Faith which soon changed to the Nyahbinhi order. By 1947, his yard at 9th Street, Trench Town was a hub for members and sympathizers of the Rastafari Faith. It was at 9th Street that he assisted developing some of the tenets that came to be regarded as the fundamentals of the Order. He became one of the foremost pioneers of the Rastafari movement. Many elders grew in the faith on his yard. He held Nyahbinhgi services in the tradition of the shepherd and his flock.
Bongo Wato sacrificed his freedom and faced death on more than one occasion during the fifties and sixties. He was sent to jail for possession of the Sacred Herb, the Ganjah plant, four times. He was poisoned twice; once by a warder and the other time by a jealous enemy within the order. The experience made him peculiar in his eating habits. He became a very strict "italist," who preferred to cook his food himself and and ate mostly raw vegetables, fruits and juices.
Elder BONGO I-MOSES
Also known as Prophet Moses, was responsible for the Teachings, Laws and Priesthood Order of the Nyahbihgi. Being the Drummer Master and Mystical Jah Dancer, Bongo I-Moses performed the highest orders of the natural science of creation in the visible fullness of the day, so that all who saw and bear witness knew that he was a Science Man of the Most High, YAH Rastafari... Bongo I-Moses himself had to serve as an example, so that the people could see and follow his movements, which was to take him up to some of the highest heights that can be achieved by a man on earth.
Elder BONGO ROCKY
Nyah Binghi Priest, States man, Ambassador Pioneer and Councilor, Elder Bongo Rocky, was one of the pillars of the Nyahbinghi order. He repatriated to Ethiopia a decade ago with his Iloved Queen Baby I, since then he has served with distinction as an Elder Statesman and Ambassador of the Nyahbinghi. He headed delegations and meetings with Heads of State, politicians, AU representatives, as well as local and regional dignitaries on behalf of the Shashemane community and the Nyahbinghi.
In 2010 YAH stretched out its hand to take from our midst a corner stone of the Nyahbinghi Order.
Elder RAS PIDOW
A recognized Elder of the Rainbow Throne of the Nyahbingi Theocratic Order, was born in 1939 in Kingston, Jamaica. A Story teller, Teacher, and Priest, Ras Pidow represents a life long i-dication of the principles of the Nyahbinghi. Ras Pidow transgressed in March, 2001.
There are many more , to many to mention but still some of InI are; Ras Gussy, Ras Bongo Tawny, Sister Bubbles, Ras Iris, Ras Crusy, Ras Istan, Sister Ina, Ras Slim, Ras John, Ras Cripple , Sister Nelly, Bongo Johnny, Ras Peter, Ras Busta, Ras Jeffta, Bongo Granville, Ras little head, Ras Titus, Ras Foodiy, Ras Ruddy, Bongo Jack, Sister Evelyn, Ras Suckle, Ras Rupert, Ras Dizzy Johnny, Ras Headful, Iyaata Iyubi, Iyaata Babyloo.
We Give thanks for all these Elders who had to endure many hardships and through their livication, paved the way for InI in these days, YAH Bless InI.
The Nyahbinghi creed is opened with the reciting of the following Psalms, while all must stand with due respect to H.I.M. (Psalm 1, 2) Psalm 121, 3) Psalm 122, 4) Psalm 133, 5) and Psalm 24 followed by the Creed:
Princes and Princesses must trod out of Egypt.
Ithiopians now stretch forth I hands to JAH,
O I JAH of Ithiopia, InI own Ivine Majesty.
Thy Irits trod into InI hearts to dwell in the path of righteousness, lead InI.
Help InI to forgive that InI must be forgiven.
Teach InI love and loyalty as it is in Mount Zion.
Endow InI with wisemind, knowledge and Iverstanding,
To do Thy Will O I YAH Rastafari.
Thy blessing unto InI O YAH;
Let the hungry be fed, the naked clothed, the sick nourished, The aged protected, and the infants cared for.
Deliver InI from the hands of InI enemies that InI must prove fruitful in these Perilous days when InI enemies are passed and decayed,
In the depths of the sea, in the depths of the earth,
In the belly of a beast or in a lake of fire.
O give InI a place in Thy Iverliving Kingman.
This InI ask in Thy Great and Thunderable Name, Haile I Selassie I YAH Rastafari.
Through the Power of the King of Kings, Lord of Lords,
Conquering Lion of the Tribe of Judah, Ilect of Thyself and Light of this World,
InI Own Ivine Majesty Emperor Haile Selassie I, First Ancient King of Creation.
YAH art the Alpha and Omega, the beginning without end, First and ForIver,
The protectorate of all Iman faith and the Ruler of the Iniverse.
So hail I YAH and King Emperor Haile Selassie I YAH Ras Tafari!
Almighty I, YAH Rastafari!!
Great and Thunderable I, YAH RASTAFARI!!!
Blessed Love, Rastafari
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