THE ETHIOPIAN WORLD FEDERATION
The Ethiopian World Federation, Incorporated, ( EWF) is a not-for-profit membership organization, incorporated in the State of New York, United States of America and registered by the Internal Revenue Services as a 501 (C) 4 (civic- league, social welfare) making the organization, tax exempt.
This organization came into being on August 25, 1937 in New York City, through the efforts of an organization known as the United Aid for Ethiopia who sent a delegation of three prominent Harlem figures. Reverend William Lloyd Imes (Pastor of the prestigious St. James Presbyterian Church), Dr. Philip M. Savory (of the Victory Insurance Company and co-owner of the New York Amsterdam News), and Mr. Cyril M Philips (secretary of the United Aid), to England in the summer of 1936 to speak with H.I.M. Emperor Haile Selassie I in Bath, where the Emperor was in exile, regarding structural advice and financial matters. The delegates met with H.I.M., Dr Melaku Beyen (His Majesties personal physician) and Dr Charles Martin (Worqneh Eshete), to whom several documents were delivered, including strong criticisms of the consul John H. Shaw (a white man), who represented Ethiopia in the United States. One pressing request of the mission was to receive a representative of the Emperor on American soil, in order to lend legitimacy to the actions undertaken by various pro-Ethiopian associations and to channel the funds yet to be received by the Emperor.
In response to their request which was approved on September 1936, His Majesty empowered Dr. Melaku Beyen to assist in the establishment of the Ethiopian World Federation Incorporated. Melaku Beyen arrived with his family in New York The Ethiopian World Federation is an important organization in more ways than one: it was the first institution to emanate from a political decision made by Emperor Haile Selassie I, and remains active until today.
The EWF was crucial during the early years of Rastafari when we evolved from a voice suppressed organization in Jamaica to one receiving international recognition.
Melaku Beyen (1900–1940) had done his preparatory studies in Bombay, India, and was one of the first Ethiopians to have studied in the United States at Muskingum College in Ohio. Melaku received his degree in economy in 1929. Melaku’s stay in the United States was marked by his closeness to African Americans. He recruited the aviators Hubert Julian and John Robinson for the Emperor and married an Afro-American woman.
Melaku was eminently qualified to succeed in the mission of federating the pro-Ethiopian organization. On his return to New York in 1936, he re-encountered the racism which had changed little during his absence, and set to work quickly. He travelled throughout the United States, organized public meetings, made many speeches, and set up the Haile Selassie I Fund Drive, aimed at the financial mobilization of the black lower/middle class and tradesmen in Harlem. The journal Voice of Ethiopia (VOE), whose first issue was published in January 1937, served as a forum to publicize Melaku’s actions, to report on anti-fascism, and to teach about the history of Ethiopia, as well as offering a directory of the businesses in Harlem and a means of advertising community activities, and to provide an institutional frame- work for these pro-Ethiopian activities. On 25 August 1937 Melaku founded the EWF whose head office was called Local 1, which was situated in New York.
The primary goal of the EWF was set forth thus in its constitution:
To promote the love and good will among Ethiopians at home or abroad in order to maintain the integrity and the sovereignty of Ethiopia, to disseminate the ancient Ethiopian culture among our members, to correct wrongs, to end oppression and to cut out for ourselves and our posterity a destiny worthy of our ideal of perfect humanity and the aim for which YAH created us; not only to save ourselves from annihilation but find our place in the sun; in this effort we are determined to seek peace and to pursue it, for this is YAH’s will for man.
Making an indirect allusion to the call, popularized by Marcus Garvey, to Africans at home and abroad, the EWF clearly formulated its ambition of touching the dispersed “Ethiopians”, and thus contributed to nurturing the racial identification linking the Ethiopians from Ethiopia and the black Americans who were supposed to be “the Ethiopians abroad”. The racial solidarity considered as a result of this identification had long been advocated by Melaku, and assumed a concrete and material form at that time, these two thoughts, racial solidarity and the immortal determination of InI people to be free, have become realities and offer the greatest assurance of the perpetuation of the independence of Ethiopia.
Local 1 in New York continued its fund raising drives, organized balls and evening events in honour of Ethiopia and the Emperor, and invited many personalities passing through Harlem to perform.
On 4 May 1940, one year before the liberation of Ethiopia, Melaku Beyen passed away due to fragile health. This was a great loss for the federation, for he had become its symbol and source of inspiration. In addition to his family, he left another Ethiopian, Lejj Araya Abebe, who had joined him in New York at the command of the Emperor. Araya Abebe had served as the treasurer of the federation and was in charge of Amharic lessons at the Voice of Ethiopia. After Melaku Beyen’s death, and up until his return to Ethiopia in 1943, Araya Abebe remained the sole link between the EWF and the Ethiopian government.
The EWF was structured precisely around “international officers” residing in New York: a president, first and second vice-presidents, an executive secretary, a treasurer, an organizer and a chaplain, with a few additional members, they formed the executive council. Groups of at least twenty five persons desirous of forming a local affiliated to the federation had to apply to the executive council to obtain a charter enabling them to elect their own officers.
By 1938, nearly ten locals had opened in the United States, in 1939 they rose to nineteen, with twenty two pending applications for the creation of new locals.
These branches opened quickly in the United States, especially Chicago. This local was very active thanks to its president, Harry Broom. Like Melaku, he had spent years travelling throughout the south of the country to rally forces for the Ethiopian cause.
The first international congress of the federation was held in July 1939 in New York and allowed many delegates to meet and prestigious guests to speak. The Earthday of Haile Selassie I was celebrated with a great ball and ended in a parade of the Ethiopian colors organized by Colonel Robinson. In 1940 there were twenty two active EWF branches, including one in Latin America and another in the Caribbean. The first Jamaican local opened in June 1939, followed by Honduras and Havana, Cuba in November 1939. Moreover, thanks to the impact of its press organ (the Voice of Ethiopia) letters and funds were received by the headquarters of the federation from places as distant as the islands of the Caribbean, Panama, Colombia, Venezuela, Jerusalem, Sudan, Nigeria and Brazil. The real extent of the financial support of the EWF to the Ethiopian cause is hard to estimate, but its moral support is seen in the speedy creation of these national and international branches. The various branches of the EWF drew the contours of a Pan-African movement in which the identification of African people was linked with the Ethiopian people. Melaku Beyen recognised the EWF’s symbolic debt to Marcus Garvey’s UNIA. In addition to this renewed identification between the Ethiopians and the African people of the West, were two other elements that characterized the EWF. First, was its Pan-African perspective, sustained in the Voice of Ethiopia. This was done through articles on Ethiopia, Haiti, on the black presence in the United States, in the Caribbean and in Africa, Melaku Beyen wrote in it, “We are out to create the United States of Africa”, a political slogan which was to remain at the heart of the Pan-African issues that arose at the time of African Independence. Certain branches of the EWF offered classes in Amharic and Ethiopian history and published numerous inserts on black “heroes” as well as reviews of books by W.E.B. Du Bois, George Padmore and Joel Rogers. G. Padmore and Nnamdi Azikiwe themselves contributed to the Voice of Ethiopia.
The second element characteristic of the EWF was its unifying perspective, which was illustrated by a meeting held at the beginning of 1955 in the small theatre of the YMCA in Harlem. There, the EWF presented, to an audience composed of Christians, Ethiopian Beta Israel Jews, Muslim Copts, all in their colourful costumes and headdress”, a forty minute recording of the Ethiopian orthodox liturgy.
The evening presided with short addresses by Ethiopian students and EWF officers, including Mayme Richardson who sang “Ethiopia”, a hymn of her own composition. A film, Focus on Ethiopia, was also shown. The cohabitation between these religious groups and the sharing of Ethiopian literature was illustrated to the extent in which the identification with Ethiopia was seen by these other black congregations. Inscribed in its constitution and in the practices of its members, the religious aspect of the EWF did not hinder but contributed to making it into an inclusive space where members of various congregations, independent or established churches alike, could come together around a common concern for the symbolic and political value of Ethiopia.
EWF IN JAMAICA
The first Jamaican local of the EWF opened in 1939 Kingston Jamaica at the initiative of Paul Earlington. Born in 1912 in the Jamaican ghetto, he was a “scout” of the Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNIA) in 1925 and found Garvey extremely fascinating. He had heard of Ras Tafari before in 1930 with His Majesties coronation and a few years later had a “vision of the Emperor” in which Haile Selassie I reportedly told him: “I have a work for you to do.”
Well acquainted with the first preachers of Rastafari and the militants against the Italian-Ethiopian war, along with a few others, he wrote to the EWF in New York to express his intention to open a local of the federation in Jamaica. Thanks to a positive response, in June
1939, eight hundred persons attended the opening ceremony of Local 17 of the EWF in Kingston with L.F.C. Mantle as president and Paul Earlington as vice president.
The Jamaican branch of the EWF was aimed “to maintain the integrity of Ethiopia” and declared its loyalty “to the cause of universal freedom for Africans”, but nevertheless requested the protection and assistance of the Jamaican government. However, such protection could not protect the militants from themselves, and the first years of the local were marked by a constant change of officers. C.P. Jackson, a mechanic, was president in January 1940, and Catherine M. Green succeeded him by February 1940 when the local had already registered seventy members. Concerts were occasionally organized to raise funds, but Paul Earlington left for the United States and Local 17 soon collapsed.
Another local, Local 31, was opened with William Powell as president and a few Rastafari as officers. This group prevented bearded Rastafari from becoming members. Most Rastafari wore beards and this discrimination against bearded Rastafari went against the importance of appearance. When Cecil G. Gordon, more a non religious activist, took over the presidency of Local 31 in 1942, his refusal to integrate the bearded Rastafari into the EWF led to the creation of other informal and non-recognized groups, thus fragmenting the base of legitimacy of the pan-Ethiopian organization. A Rastafari and long time officer of the EWF who lives in Shashemene since1981 explains: At dem times Rastafari wasn’t invited as members (by EWF), we were seen as escapist, drop out of society, ganja smokers and even denied employment. When we try to attend a meeting of the EWF, we could only stay outside by the window and we hear dem a deliberate whatever it is. But still dem don’t like our presence, because what we show dem is HIM (His Imperial Majesty) is the Messiah and yet they have different religion among them, Catholic, Presbyterian, Church of England, Baptists. . . that’s why dem can’t have a steady progressive EWF.
Rastafari had a hard time finding their place within the EWF because of their faith, and because the officers who had national and international responsibilities were dominating the administrative relationship within the EWF between Kingston and New York, were not Rastafari and were reluctant to embrace InI. Due to these controversies, the EWF initially had little effect on the movement in Jamaica. Its incapacity to embrace Rastafari passion for Ethiopia and to integrate Rastafari into its official structures had serious consequences regarding the knowledge of an important piece of the puzzle, for both Rastafari and the EWF. Because the two never really collaborated and strengthened one and other, The EWF lost its attachment to the ones who became the most known for African liberation and Repatriation in the world and are therefore hardly known or recognized. And the Rastafari lost an important partner in regards to repatriation which has always been on the forefront of the movement, but up to this day lacks constructive and official methods to achieve this.
Joseph Nathaniel Hibbert, Archibald Dunkley and other early Rastafari leaders were EWF foundational members in Jamaica. But left the organization after these controversies of non acceptance. Leonard P. Howell wrote for the EWF newspaper, the Voice of Ethiopia. In 1939, he was the first to break away from the EWF by establishing the Ethiopian Salvation Society. A year later Howell established the Pinnacle settlement. On July 25, 1941, EWF Local #17 member Joseph Nathaniel Hibbert established a branch of the Ethiopian Mystic Masons. Six years later, Bredda Arthur, Phillip Panhandle, Kurukong and others founded the Youth Black Faith in Trench Town, West Kingston, Jamaica. From this the Nyahbinghi Order emerged as it is known today.
It was in 1958 that EWF member Charles Edwards (Prince Emmanuel) established the Ethiopia Africa Black International Congress and Church of Salvation (The Bobo Shanti). Also, it was EWF Local #15 member Vernon Carrington (Prophet Gad) who established the Twelve Tribes of Israel in Kingston.
It is directly out of the EWF that so many of the Houses in Rastafari have formed.
Dispite this, the history of the EWF is mostly disregarded and not known by most people to be a big part of the livity, due to the difficult relationship the two have had with each other.
LAND GRANT IN SHASHEMANE, ETHIOPIA
Land became available in Ethiopia for the members of the organization on 8 July 1950, George A. Bryan, secretary of the organization in New York, informed Miss Iris Davis, the secretary of Local 31in Kingston, that the EWF “has been granted land in Ethiopia” in recognition of the organisation’s support during the years of war, and that a house (Shashemane) had been provided in Addis Ababa. Bryan pressed the Jamaican local to assemble its members in order to relay this information and insisted on the qualities required of the candidates for departure: “only those who have proven or shall prove their worth as true Ethiopians”. Two months later, Richard A.Brown, then in charge of the administration of Local 31, wrote to the governor of Jamaica to inform him, in the obsequious language reserved for official correspondence, that the EWF in Jamaica was indeed concerned by this donation of land, and asked him for the support of the government with respect to funds required for the journey of the three hundred and fifty members of the local, since “according to present economic conditions now existing in the Island we are financially embarrassed and cannot find the necessary finance for transportation”. Probably taken by surprise, a week later the colonial secretary requested precise details: how many people intended to go to Ethiopia, what was the cost of the voyage and whether they were all of “Ethiopian descent”. In response, the officers of Local 31 acknowledged that all the members of the EWF were descendants of Ethiopians. On this occasion, 360 persons were counted and others were announced, probably attracted to the local by this news. Brown asked for some time to obtain details from the EWF in New York. Bishop Lawson, international president of the EWF visited Jamaica On 27 September 1950. Bishop Lawson, of the Church of Our Lord Jesus Christ, was then the international president of the EWF, he distanced himself very clearly from the popular religious forms he had been able to observe during his short stay in Jamaica. As reported by the governor: “He told me that he had met some members of the Ras Tafari cult and was shocked at their faith in the Emperor as being divine. The Federation had no connection at all with the Ras Tafari.”
This position was devastating: the EWF in New York refused to maintain ties with Rastafari. Bishop Lawson departed extremely disturbed by two concerns: the poverty of the Jamaican members and their faith in Rastafari. Eleven years after the establishment of the first EWF branch in Kingston, the refusal to take into account and to integrate Rastafari into the organization persisted regardless of their numerical strength and their passion for Ethiopia. Rastafari multiplied, influenced by the news of land available in Ethiopia. It was not in the United States that EWF managed to find younger and more dynamic members. Rather the place where real popular support of the federation was to be found was in the Caribbean and especially in Jamaica. Richardson, a prominent leader of EWF in the usa, arrived in Jamaica in September 1955 where she remained until the end of October, before visiting other Caribbean islands. For several years she had pressed the federation to develop its base and to attract new, younger members, in order to renew their ranks. A large gathering in her honour was organized at Coke Hall where the room was packed and many organizations present, including the EWF, UNIA, and the Afro-West Indian Welfare League. In 1954 she had met Emperor Haile Selassie I when His Majesty visited the usa, and she carried a message to the audience, reported by the Jamaican press: His Majesty Emperor Haile Selassie I wants the people “to know and learn more of their ancient history; to learn their native language; to know and learn more about their own religion; and the true fidelity of Christ”
There was a land grant now in Ethiopia and African people in the diaspora could go and settle there. Ones had to go in groups in a well orchestrated manner. Richardson also stated that His Majesty was building a fleet of ships which would sail from Addis Ababa to the usa and there was a possibility, that the ships would one day come here. It was a reminder of the programme from Marcus Garvey and his fleet, the Black Star Line. No more was needed to raise the enthusiasm of the assembly. Later contrary to the announcement made in 1950, the federation recognized in 1955 that its real base of support was in Jamaica and accepted the invitation to address the Jamaican Rastafari. Furthermore, coinciding with the visit of Richardson, an official letter from the executive committee of the New York EWF, addressed to Local 31 in Kingston, gave the same information.
One, land had been given through the EWF to the African people of the West who had assisted Ethiopia in its time of distress.
Two, the land that was granted is the personal property of Emperor Haile Selassie I.
Three, as the Ethiopian government was not prepared for a mass migration, the migrants had to be of “pioneer caliber”.
Four, people were to leave in groups and to promote a spirit of collective co-operation.
Five, professionals (carpenters, plumbers, masons, electricians, and so on) could assist the Ethiopians and learn from them.
Six, as the EWF in New York was unable to contribute financially to the journeys, the EWF locals were to raise funds in view of supporting their members.
This news resulted in a considerable growth of the EWF and of the Rastafari movement; many informal groups became locals of the federation with the support of Mayme Richardson. Cecil G. Gordon left Local 31 to found Local 19. These became the two only branches that were officially registered with the government. The officers of the Afro-West Indian Brotherhood, who had visited London in May1955 in the costumes of Ethiopian pageantry,
announced that their organization was to merge with the EWF, to become Local 7.
The Brotherhood Solidarity of United Ethiopians and the African Cultural League merged to form Local 37. Joseph Nathaniel Hibbert merged his organization, the Ethiopian Coptic Faith, with Local 27 , and Archibald Dunkley’s King of Kings Mission became Local 77. Other branches in Kingston included Locals 19, 33, 40 and 41, the last being exclusively female. Members of the Ethiopian Youth Cosmic Faith affiliated themselves with Locals 7 and 33. In the country, Local 11 was opened in Rock Hall, St Andrew, Local 32 in Montego Bay, and Local 25 in Spanish Town, the country’s second city. The success of the EWF, resulting from news of the land grant in Ethiopia, did not, however, guarantee the establishment of locals with institutionally solid and effective administrations. Most locals were short lived and unstable, and certain ones, like that of Mortimo Planno, functioned only occasionally.
Other organizations remained distant from the EWF. Certain members of the EWF developed their own organisations, while continuing their affiliation with the federation.
Lastly, many Rastafari remained non-affiliated and independent of any collective body.
In this process of multiplication and fragmentation of the EWF locals in Jamaica, there were still tensions between locals headed by Rastafari and by non-Rastafari, and the non-Rastafari were not willing to share the control they had of the administrative relationship they had with the EWF in New York.
Often, locals headed by Rastafari would speak truth to the bald head initial charters, which was not accepted. This resulted in tension about the hierarchy of control and power within the EWF. We had rivalry at the local level, because we were not following the constitution and procedures of the EWF. The legitimacy assumed by the EWF, thanks to the announcement of the land donation, was important, but was not sufficient to transform the EWF into the major organization among Rastafari, whose claim of the right to return to Africa was increasingly diffused and pressing. The Rastafari had difficulties of coordination locals based on a single institution for reasons related to appearance, organizational methods, and the predominance of chosen leaders and also because of a lack of previous administrative skills, by reason of living conditions. These economic and social conditions made it difficult for constant and regular commitment and go to multiple meetings in various places. While many Rastafari apposed the direction of the EWF, which was thought to be counter productive, only a few seized the possibilities represented by the EWF.
In 1958 a new local opened, Local 43. Local 43 was located on Unity Lane in Waterhouse, a poor area of Kingston sometimes referred to as “Fire-house”, and bordered by a gully. Salomon Wolfe headed Local 43 and he was strictly a EWF brother. He was a businessman, very cool, and had great sympathy for those in need. He was a very charitable brother and a long time Rastafari. Eventually, a committee created by Local 43 of the EWF, composed of seven people travelled to the EWF annual convention in New York in July 1964. At this congress, the delegation of Local 43 who had hoped to make the trip from New York to Ethiopia were faced with the reality that the EWF, as a Back-to-Africa organization, international in scope, did not have a repatriation committee. In New York, they realized that return was not the primary objective of the EWF. Nothing in the EWF’s constitution ascribed to this role, and American members, who were both small in number and older in age than the Jamaicans, were in no hurry to go to Ethiopia.
This important observation can clarify the restraint of Rastafari as compared with those of American and non-Rastafari members of the EWF. The Rastafari within the EWF have always claimed that Ethiopia is InI rightful heritage and InI ultimate goal is to sit under InI own vine and fig tree. The Land Grant therefore was seen by the Rastafarians to be a direct fulfillment of prophecy, having faith that the time had come for the sons and daughters of Africa to return. For the EWF the Back-to-Africa movement meant migration, for to the Rastafarians, repatriation.
Rastafari see repatriation different from migration, mainly because of its spiritual perspective. Land had been granted by the Emperor Himself and because of the special relationship we have with H.I.M., Rastafari defended the idea that the gift was more so addressed to them, with space for others to join. The land grant in Shashemene became a powerful argument for repatriation, interpreted literally through the lens of Biblical prophecies about the return to Israel. As a result, Rastafari viewed repatriation as a divine operation that only YAH could cause to occur, not the Jamaican government. This was the theological function of the return, which had often resulted in a kind of passivity and a culture of waiting and expectation.
However, not all Rastafari were passively or mystically waiting. Some took steps to make return happen, and fulfill the prophecy Iself with the guidance of His Majesty which was offered to them through the EWF, as the land was there in Ethiopia and available to members of the EWF. Facing the reality to rely mostly on them selves, members of Local 43 joined with Local 31, which at the time had large numbers of members. They launched an appeal for funds, with the support of the international president of the EWF, Cester Garden, and the authorization of the prime minister of Jamaica, Dr Donald Sangster. The objective was to transport pioneers and to assist in settle-ling them and develop the land at Shashamane.
A Rastafari, Zeptha Malcolm, gave more than half the funds and Local 31 gave almost one third. Other subscribers were five individuals and four companies. But once the funds were collected to finance the trip, a fundamental question arose: who was ready to go? A woman was ready, Carmen Clarke, born in1934 in St Mary, who grew up in Jones Town and lived in Trench Town, Kingston. A Rastafari, she was an active and militant volunteer in her community. Well read, she often filled in the position of secretary and wrote letters on behalf of the EWF. She remembers: The local I was living with before, number 31, had a lot of members, whole heap of members, I think people dem they ready to accept the doctrine and the preaching of Ethiopia through the federation down there but their mind, their mind wasn’tready for Ethiopia. Because when I ready to come to Ethiopia, there was people who in that local, years upon years who died, you know, even some before I left, they were in the local going night and day, going all round and they didn’t ready, they never even have a passport when the calling come, the local is going to send people to Ethiopia, some of them no have a passport. Being in the local for years, singing “send me back to Ethiopia land” but they didn’t ready, their mind didn’t ready, (just) their mouth talking.
The importance of Local 31 in Clarke’s life is clearly emphasized. It was where she lived, where most of her activities converged and where her social relationships were formed. Clarke criticised the majority of members of the local. They spent a lot of time there, always talking about Ethiopia, but did not take the possibility of departure seriously. This general unpreparedness of the majority of Local 31 members illustrates how difficult it was to move from rhetoric to practice. For most individuals, Rastafari or not, “back to Africa”remained a slogan, a claim closely related to their status as impoverished and marginalized African people. But Clarke took the idea literally. She was thirty-five years old and ready: Once I started and get the doctrine, I’m ready, I’m ready to take the trip, all my friends, outside of Federation said “you crazy, where are you going to Africa, people are starving to death” and they talk. I say OK, it’s alright, let me go and see for myself.
She was determined. Thinking back about those who stayed behind, Clarke was still wondering what the value of all those sermons over the years was, all these words, if they were not followed by concrete action when the opportunity arose. She represented an “old generation” of Rastafari: devout, militant and without dreadlocks. This group of five adults and a child were from Locals 31 and 43. Some members of the group delayed their departure because of problems with passports, but on 5 September 1969 they left, finally, via New York. The Daily Gleaner ran the headline “Mission off to Develop 700 Acres in Ethiopia”.
There was Clarke, the only woman and unmarried, and Zeptha Malcolm, a dreadlocks Rastafari born in Cuba in 1927 to a Jamaican mother and a Cuban father, who had arrived in Jamaica at the age of seventeen. He was a construction worker who had seven children with two women, but only one of his daughters accompanied him to Ethiopia.
Frederick Pryce changed his mind while in New York, and he returned to Jamaica. Gerald Brissett was a skilled worker, and Salomon Wolfe made the trip as he was president of Local
43. They all had to invest their own money to pay for their trip, as fund raising had been insufficient. The group stayed for eleven days in New York where they were baptized into the Ethiopian Orthodox Church. After stop overs in Athens and Nairobi, they arrived in Addis Ababa, and despite some difficulties related to vaccinations they were allowed to disembark. They were followed a few weeks later by the head of the Jamaican government, Jamaica Labour Party leader Hugh Shearer, and by the representative of the opposition People’s National Party, Michael Manley.
Conscious of the importance of the trip in the Jamaican popular imagination, the politicians could not miss the opportunity to align themselves with the issue of repatriation, an issue that had been set aside since the independence of Jamaica. This 1969 group joined the first group of ‘pioneers’ who had arrived the previous year. The new comers had made the trip to Ethiopia with the assistance of the EWF, even if they had to oppose the international officers, finding their own funding, and transforming the organization from the ground up so as to achieve their purpose. Eight years later, in 1969, Rastafari were successful, and they became the first Jamaican members of the EWF to settle in Shashemene. They would eventually be followed by other settlers, including members of Local 15, which was soon to become internationally known as the Twelve Tribes of Israel.
At the moment it is a little unclear about what the present day situation (2019) of the Federation is. For more then one reason the Land Grant is not fully being made use of. One, for different reasons the back to Africa endeavor never really came of its feet. Not enough of InI made the trod to Shashemane, so a large piece of the land was not being made use of, and therefore given back to the Ethiopian people who live in that area, the Oromo people. The other reason is more political in nature. First naturally when mengistu took command of Ethiopia after His Majesty, the situation became a lot more difficult for InI to repatriate, and with the political parties that followed after mengistu the situation didn’t get much better. It has always been a struggle for the ones who did make the trod to live in Ethiopia, Shashemane. Work, business and building permits were not issued out by the government, and it would only be possible to get these after be-wedding a local Ethiopian. The Land Grant is in a region that belongs to the Orromo People and they are the ones who are aloud to do whatever they feel like, for others this is difficult. The initial five hundred acres has been taken back to some extent, although there are reports that if there is no space for the ones who still want to make use of the Land Grant that additional land would be granted, in the direct area or other areas if that is not possible. But these reports still this need to be verified and examined to the full extent to have a clear view of that. Because of these difficulties, the role of the EWF in the sense of repatriation in the way we as Rastafari see it has become less useful for the moment. The EWF doesn't seem to be very active in regard to repatriation, and it is also unclear if it still functions in the way it did before, which locals are still active? How much members are there? Who is heading the organization at the moment? Is there still land available? What are the plans? The latest report is that Ras Idonis together with Tehetena Girma is heading Local 1, which has always been the Head office. Ras Idonis is a very active bredren when it comes providing information about Ethiopia and Rastafari in general, so if there is any news in regard to the Land Grant, we can be sure he will inform InI whenever there is news. Other EWF members also have more of an affiliation with Rastafari in these days, so it seems like the organization is more Rastafari minded then how is was in the past. We will try to provide more information on the current status of the EWF and the Land Grant once we have this information, so check back at this part from time to time for updates.
CONSTITUTION AND BY-LAWS OF THE ETHIOPIAN WORLD FEDERATION, INCORPORATED
On September 3, 1937 the EWF presented its charter or constitution. Dr. Melaku Beyen wrote the following statement: “We the Black People of the World, in order to effect Unity, Solidarity, Liberty, Freedom and self-determination, to secure Justice and maintain the Integrity of Ethiopia, which is our divine heritage, do hereby establish and ordain this constitution for The Ethiopian World Federation, Incorporated”.
Early Rastafari leaders and the law firm of Delaney, Lewis and Williams presented the Charter of the Ethiopian World Federation, Incorporated at the regular friday meeting of the EWF.
In presenting the Charter, Attorney Delaney said, “I never dreamed that I would be called upon to serve His Majesty Emperor Haile Selassie I. Dr. Bayen has come to this country and has felt out its pulse and was able to accomplish his purpose. He knew what he wanted in the charter, he knew what you wanted, an organ that would encompass the whole world wherever African People lived, and he got it. You have a right, a charter, but without the work of each one of you, it will be useless. With this right, there is a responsibility and a duty. It gives me great pleasure to present the Charter.”
The constitution and by-laws is, as one would expect, is a very careful and business like document, having articles which deal with aims and objects, membership, international officers and their duties, conventions, elections, meetings, local units, their establishment and organization, committees, impeachment of officers, units, benefits, amendments, order of business, etc.
THE EWF CONSTITUTION
ARTICLE I :
NAME, AIMS AND OBJECTS
Section 1. The name of this organization shall be the Ethiopian World Federation, Incorporated.
Section 2. The aims and objects of the Ethiopian World Federation, Incorporated, shall be:
(a). To promote love and good-will among Ethiopians at home and abroad and thereby to maintain the integrity and sovereignty of Ethiopia, to disseminate the ancient Ethiopian culture among its members, to correct abuses, relieve oppression and carve for ourselves and our posterity, a destiny comparable with our idea of perfect manhood and God's purpose in creating us; that we may not only save ourselves from annihilation, but carve for ourselves a place in the Sun: in this endeavor, we determine to seek peace and pursue it., for it is the will of God for man.
(b). To promote and pursue happiness; for it is the goal of human life and endeavor.
(c). To usher in the teaching and practice of the Fatherhood of God and the brotherhood of man.
(d). To promote and stimulate interest among its members in world affairs, and to cultivate a spirit of international goodwill and comity.
(e). To promote friendly interest among its members, to develop a fraternal spirit among them and to inculcate in its members the desire to render voluntary aid and assistance to one another at all times.
(f). To render voluntary aid and protection to its members, without fee or charge for same when in need. And, if necessary, to provide and care for refugees and disabled victims of the Italio-Ethiopian War.
(g) To give concrete material and voluntary aid without fee or charge for the same, to all such refugees and disabled victims and to raise funds by voluntary subscription for the purposes aforementioned. There shall be no charge, fee, beneficiary tax or other assessment upon the members of the Ethiopian World Federation, Incorporated, except for dues, provided for in the Constitution and By-Laws of the Ethiopian World Federation, Incorporated.
(h) To encourage its members to develop interest and pride in Democratic institutions and to promote Democratic principles and ideals. May God help us to accomplish these aims and ideals.
Scope: The Ethiopian World Federation, Incorporated, shall be International in scope.
Headquarters: The Headquarters of the Ethiopian World Federation, Incorporated, shall be in the City of New York, State of New York, United States of America.
Colors. The official Colors of the Ethiopian World Federation, Incorporated, shall be the same as the National Colors of Ethiopia Green, Gold and Red.
Eligibility to Office. Male and female shall be equally eligible to all offices.
Non-Partisan Character. The Ethiopian World Federation, Incorporated, shall be non-partisan and non-political in character, but in cases where partisan, political, or other issues tend to affect the Ethiopian World Federation, Incorporated, adversely in the carrying out of its aims and objects, it shall be free to combat such issues with the best legal means at its disposal.
Section 8. No individual who is a member of any other organization, political party, religious group or sect, which requires that individual to pledge unswerving allegiance to its tenets, thus depriving him of freedom of thought and action which may be necessary in carrying out the aims and objects of the Ethiopian World Federation, Incorporated, shal1 be elected or appointed to office, or shall allow himself to be elected to any office. Any election or appointment to office in violation of this Section, shall be null and void.
ARTICLE II :
Section 1. The membership shall comprise the BLACK PEOPLES of the world.
APPLICATION: Application for membership shall be in writing.
Rejection. The Ethiopian World Federation, Incorporated. shall have the right to reject any application for membership without giving reasons.
Joining fee. The Ethiopian World Federation, Incorporated, shall have the right to a fix a joining fee. There shall be a joining fee of One Dollar (U.S. $ 1:00). However, The Ethiopian World Federation, Incorporated, through its Executive Council, shall have the right to grant special dispensation to certain areas and to adjust this fee to suit the conditions thereof, provided, however, that in no area the amount effected by the dispensation shall exceed One Dollar (U.S. $1.00).
Dues: The Ethiopian World Federation, Incorporated, shall have the right to establish membership dues. The membership dues shall be ten cents (U.S. $.10) per week. These dues shall be remitted to the Headquarters.
Unfinancial Members: Any member who is twelve weeks in arrears in the payment of dues shall be unfinancial in the organization.
ARTICLE III :
Section 1. There shall be the following International Officers of the Ethiopian World Federation, Incorporated:
(b). First Vice-President
(c). Second Vice-President
(d). Executive Secretary
Executive Council. There shall be an Executive Council composed of the elected International Officers, together with three additional members elected by the Convention.
Duties of International Officers:
(a).The International President shall be the executive head of the Ethiopian World Federation, Inc., and shall reside in the City of New York. It shall be the duty of the International President to preside at the International Conventions and to deliver an address on the state of the Ethiopian World Federation. Incorporated. He shall sign all legal documents and be Chairman of the International Executive Council. It shall be his duty to call Conventions as appointed by law, and in cases of emergency, by and with the consent of the Executive Council, call special conventions.
(b). The First International Vice-President shall reside in the City of New York and shall assume the duties of the International President in his absence or when requested to do so by him.
(c).Second International Vice-President: The 2nd International Vice- President shall perform the duties of the First Vice- President in his absences and shall assist the First Vice-President in the performance of such duties as may be assigned to him by the President In case of death or permanent disability of the First Vice- President. The International Executive Council shall name the Executive Head to serve until the next general election.
(d). Executive Secretary: The Executive Secretary shall have charge of the main office of the Ethiopian World Federation. Incorporated, and shall be held responsible to the Executive Council for the conduct of the business thereof All acts of the Executive Secretary shall be subject to the approval of the Executive Council. The Executive Secretary shall appoint all office employees, subject to the approval of the Executive Council and shall when necessary, submit to the Executive Council the name of any member of the office staff for promotion to the head of a department The Executive Secretary shall receive all monies from locals and other sources. All monies so received shall be turned over, within 24 hours, to the Treasurer, who shall give a receipt or receipts to the Executive Secretary. The Executive Secretary shall forward receipts to all locals for monies received from them. The Executive Secretary shall submit quarterly reports to the Executive Council.
(e). Treasurer: It shall be the duty of the International Treasurer to receive all monies from the Executive Secretary. He shall, in conjunctions with other members of the Banking Committee, deposit all amounts of money in the bank or banks designated by the Executive Council. His books shall be open to inspection by the Executive Council at all times. He shall issue receipts for all monies received by him for the organization. He shall pay out monies upon order of the Executive Council only. He shall be bonded by a reliable surety company. The premium for such a bond shall be paid by the organization. He shall be a member of the Executive Council.
(f). International Organizer: It shall be the duty of the International Organizer to organize locals, to supervise locals already established and to keep them in good working order. He shall also perform such other duties as may be assigned to him by the Executive Council. He shall keep the Headquarters informed of his activities from week to week and he shall submit a monthly report.
(g). Absence: Any officer absenting himself from three successive meetings and failing to submit sufficient reason for his absence, this office may be declared vacant by the Executive Council.
The Executive Council of the Ethiopian World Federation, Incorporated, shall instruct locals from time to time on matters not herein mentioned. All questions of procedure not specifically mentioned in this Constitution shall be governed by Robert's Manual of Parliamentary Procedure.
ARTICLE IV :
CONVENTIONS, ELECTIONS, INSTALLATIONS, MEETINGS
Conventions: There shall be an annual Convention of the Ethiopian World Federation, Incorporated. It shall be called on the sixteenth day of July. The Convention shall select the place of meeting of the succeeding Convention.
Delegates to the Convention: Each local shall be entitled to representation in Convention by delegates. There shall be one delegate for each 25 members up to one hundred, and for each additional one hundred members or part thereof, one additional delegate. One-third of the number of duly accredited delegates to any Convention shall constitute a quorum at that Convention.
Section 3. Elections: The election of all international officers shall take place during the Convention. The election shall be by ballot. All locals shall hold their election during the first two weeks in December.
Section 4. Term of Office: All officers, international and local, shall be elected for a term of one year.
Section 5. Installation: The installation of elected international officers shall be held on a date preceding the closing of the Convention. The installation of officers of locals shall be at the first regular meeting in January following the election.
Section. 6. Uniforms: The Ethiopian World Federation, Incorporated, shall have the right to decide on the kind of uniform, if any, to be worn during parades and Conventions.
Section 7. Meetings: It shall be within the discretion of any local to hold its meetings as often as desired, provided, however, that there shall be held regular meetings twice per month.
Section 8. Nine members in good standing shall constitute a quorum for the transaction of business in the local.
ARTICLE V :
(a). The first unit of the Ethiopian World Federation, Incorporated, in the City of New York shall be known as Local Number One.
(b). The duly elected officers of Local No. I shall be the International Officers, except the President, until a Convention is called and International Officers are duly elected.
(a). The right to issue charters is vested in the Executive Council.
(b). The right to revoke charters is vested in the Executive Council.
ARTICLE VI :
ESTABLISHMENT OF LOCALS
(a). Any twenty-five persons or more, desirous of forming a local, shall apply to the Executive Council for a charter.
(b). The fee for this charter shall be Ten ($10.00) Dollars.
The officers of each local of the Ethiopian World Federation, Incorporated, shall be: President, First Vice-President, Second Vice-Presidents, Treasurer, Financial Secretary, Recording-Corresponding Secretary, Chaplain, Sergeant-at-Arms.
Each local shall establish an Executive Committee. This Executive Committee shall be composed of the President, First Vice-President, Second Vice-President, Treasurer, Financial Secretary, Recording-Corresponding Secretary, Chaplain, Sergeant-at-Arms and the three other members elected by the local.
Duties of officers-Locals:
(a) President: The President shall preside at all meetings, sign all documents of the local and appoint all committees and units. The President shall have power to call special meetings in the general interest of the organization whenever he deems it necessary. The President shall be ex-officio member of all committees.
(b) Vice-President: It shall be the duty of the Vice-Presidents, in their order to preside at regular meetings in the absence of the President or whenever requested to do so by him or her.
(c) Treasurer: It shall be the duty of the Treasurer to receive from the Financial Secretary all monies belonging to the local giving a voucher for same, and shall deposit or cause to be deposited, twenty-four hours after its receipt, such monies in a bank or banks selected by the Executive Committee. He shall payout monies on order of the Executive Committee only. He shall make a monthly report to the local on a blank provided for the purpose, submitting a certified copy to the Headquarters. He shall be bonded.
(d) Financial Secretary: It shall be the duty of the Financial Secretary to receive all monies from subscriptions, dues, contributions, rallies and special efforts from the members of the local, and from all other sources, give a receipt and keep an accurate record thereof. He shall turn over all such monies to the Treasurer at the close of each meeting and shall demand a voucher therefor. He shall be bonded. The books of the Financial Secretary shall be open to the Executive Committee of the local or to any person authorized by said committee to examine them. The Financial Secretary shall be required to collaborate with the Recording-Corresponding Secretary and shall, on request, give such information as may be required by the Recording Corresponding Secretary of entries or records made in his books. The Financial Secretary shall make a monthly report to the local on a blank provided for the purpose, submitting a signed copy to the Headquarters.
(e) Recording-Corresponding Secretary: It shall be the duty of the Recording Corresponding Secretary to keep a correct record of the minutes and proceedings of the regular meetings. He shall keep a correct list of the members of the local. He shall be required to collaborate with the Financial Secretary and shall on request give such information as may be required by the Financial Secretary of entries or records made in his books. He shall keep on file all reports and communications. He shall affix his signature, together with the seal of the local, to all documents. He shall keep the seal of the local under his personal supervision. He shall read all reports and minutes of previous meetings. He shall be a member of the Executive Committee of the local. The Recording-Corresponding Secretary shall have charge of all books, literature, flags, buttons, stamps and all salable articles of the local and shall turn over the proceeds from the sale thereof to the Financial Secretary.
(f) Chaplain: It shall be the duty of the Chaplain to open and close every meeting of the local with prayer and to minister to the spiritual needs of the members. He shall be responsible. for the moral tone pervading the local. He shall transmit to the local such instructions and literature as shall be sent to him from time to time by the International Chaplain. He shall be a member of the local committee on Complaints and Grievances and of the Sick Committee.
(g) Sergeant-at-Arms: The Sergeant-at-Arms shall attend all meetings of the local and see that the meeting room is in order. He shall attend at the door of the meeting room, prevent the admission of any person who is not entitled to admission, or whose conduct is unbecoming; and when instructed by the President, shall remove from the meeting room any person whose conduct is not in keeping with good order and discipline. He shall perform any and all such other duties pertaining to his office as might be required of him by the President.
ARTICLE VI :
Standing Committees: The following committees shall be established:
Section 1. Banking. Membership, Education, Publicity, Sick, Ways and Means, Information, Auditing, Complaints and Grievances, House Committee and such other committees as shall from time to time become necessary provided that such committees are approved by the International Executive Council.
(a). Banking Committee: There shall be a Banking Committee composed of the President, Treasurer and three other members elected from the body. It sha11 be the duty of the Banking Committee to keep a check on the deposits and withdrawals by the Treasurer and to assist him in any way he desires. It shall have access to the bank books held by the Treasurer and may from time to time check with him, his bank accounts and financial dealings.
(b) Membership: It shall be the duty of the Membership Committee to devise plans to increase the membership of the local; to visit delinquent members; to encourage their attendance at the meetings and encourage them in the full performance of their duties.
(c) Education: It shall be the duty of the Committee on Education to provide for the use of the members, books, papers, magazines and all historical and cultural material and literature touching racial questions as well as political, economic, social, health, agricultural and other matters which will aid in the betterment of Black Peoples and humanity in general. This committee shall from time to time plan and conduct educational programs.
(d) Publicity Committee: It shall be the duty of the Committee on Publicity to keep before the public the aims and objects of the organization and the work of the local. It shall endeavor to publicize its activities. It shall be responsible for the distribution of the official organ of the Ethiopian World Federation, Incorporated
(e) Sick Committee: It shall be the duty of the Sick Committee to keep a list of the sick members; to visit them regularly and to encourage the general membership to do so. It shall evince a genuine interest in the sick members, doing all in its power to aid and comfort them. It shall raise funds for their financial assistance; these funds shall be deposited with the Treasurer of the local and kept by him in a separate account. The committee shall recommend to the Executive Committee the nature and amount of the aid that may be given.
(f). Ways and Means: It shall be the duty of the Ways and Means committee to devise plans for raising money to conduct the business of the local.
(g). Information Committee: It shall be the duty of the Committee on Information to gather information for the general welfare of the Federation.
(h). Auditing Committee: There shall be an Auditing Committee of three members. It shall be the duty of the Auditing Committee to make an audit of the books of the local and submit its report to the local with a signed copy of the report to the Headquarters quarterly. The Executive Committee shall be empowered to demand an audit at anytime. No member of the Executive Committee shall serve on the Auditing Committee.
(i). House Committee: The House Committee shall have charge of the building and all other physical property belonging to the local. They shall see to it that these are kept in proper order and repaired and shall prepare the house for meetings. They shall make a monthly inventory of all physical property.
(j). Complaints and Grievances Committee: Any member having complaints or grievances affecting the organization or any member thereof shall submit the same to the Committee on Complaints and Grievances. The Committee shall hear all complaints and grievances submitted to it and shall make a determined effort to settle in committee, all differences. Failing to effect a settlement, the matter shall be presented by Secretary of the committee to the Executive Committee of the local. It. shall review the entire case. The party failing to abide by the decision of the Executive Committee shall have the right of appeal to the Executive Council of the Ethiopian World Federation, Incorporated. The decision of the Executive Council shall be final.
ARTICLE VIII :
IMPEACHMENT OF AN OFFICER
Whenever an officer of any local shall practice malfeasance in office, or shall conduct himself in a manner unbecoming an officer, he shall be impeached. Any member of the Ethiopian World Federation, Incorporated, in good standing may present charges against an officer. Charges shall be in writing; whenever a charge is preferred against an officer, it shall first be presented to the Committee on Complaints and Grievances. This Committee shall hear and examine the evidence immediately upon presentation of the charges. Should the evidence be found insufficient to warrant a trail, the Committee on Complaints and Grievances, shall, by majority vote, dismiss the charges. Should the evidence warrant a trial, the committee shall recommend to the President suspension of the officer. The President shall suspend the officer, pending trial. Should the officer charged be the President, any recommendations for his suspension shall be made to the First Vice-President. The Committee on Complaints and Grievances, if it finds that a trial is warranted, shall submit the charges to the Executive Committee within twenty-four hours. The Executive Committee of the local shall hear these charges and on the evidence submitted on both sides render a fair decision. The defendant shall have the right of appeal to the Executive Council of the Ethiopian World Federation, Incorporated. The decision of the Executive Council shall be final.
ARTICLE IX :
Section 1. A unit is a group within a local, which is required to perform certain specialized duties or task. The personnel of all units, appointed by the president, sha1l be subject to the approval of the Executive Committee.
(a). Medical: The Medical Unit shall constitute persons who are members of the medical, dental, pharmaceutical and nursing profession. It shall be their duty to give instructions, lectures and general information on health and other topics affecting the well-being of the membership. They shall give to any group desiring training, instruction in first aid, hygiene and preventive medicine. The local failing to include any of the above named professional persons in its membership shall form a medical unit among the lay members. This unit shall invite such members of the above named professions as are available to conduct classes and give instruction in the subjects aforementioned.
(b). Musical: Every local shall have the right to set up a Musical Unit. This unit shall consist of a band. orchestra and a choir. Each department shall have its own musical director. The musical directors shall be qualified musicians.
(c). Juvenile: Every local shall have the right to set up a Juvenile Department and to determine its functions.
(d). Women's Auxiliary: Each local shall have the right to establish a Women's Auxiliary. It shall be the duty of the Women's Auxiliary to raise funds to be used for the expense of delegates to the Convention, to provide for the care, keep and comfort of international officers visiting the local on business, and for any other business which the Executive Committee shall decide.
ARTICLE X :
Section 1. Benefits: All financial members of the Ethiopian World Federation, Incorporated, shall be entitled to the benefits hereafter mentioned:
(a). All applications for help shall be referred to the Sick Committee, which may recommend aid according to the circumstances of the case.
(b). The Ethiopian World Federation, Incorporated, shall attempt to make or find employment for its members who make application for such employment.
(c). Death: The Ethiopian World Federation, Incorporated, shall establish a burial fund; each member of the Ethiopian World Federation, Incorporated, in order to obtain the benefits of this burial fund shall have subscribed to the fund for at least one year and shall be in good financial standing in the organization. The subscription to the burial fund shall be $.25 per month. Upon conclusive proof of death, the Ethiopian World Federation, Incorporated, shall subscribe from this fund the sum of One Hundred ($100.00) Dollars towards the funeral expense of the deceased. Any member who fails to subscribe to the burial fund for three months shall be unfinancial in this fund and shall not be entitled to the benefits of this fund Any member who is unfinancial in the Ethiopian World Federation, Incorporated, shall be classified as unfinancial in the burial fund. The Financial Secretary of the local shall collect from each member monthly the subscription to the burial fund.
ARTICLE XI :
OBSERVANCE OF NATIONAL HOLIDAYS
The Constitution may be amended by the following procedure:
1. Notice setting forth a copy of the proposed amendment shall be submitted at a regular Convention and shall require a majority vote for endorsement The Convention, shall set a time limit not exceeding one year within which each local shall vote upon the proposed amendment The Executive Secretary shall transmit an official transcript of the endorsed amendment to each local. A majority vote in each local shall determine the vote of the local. The amendment shall be declared ratified when three-fourths of the total number of locals shall have voted affirmatively for the proposed amendment.
Order of Business.
1. Call to Order by the Presiding Officer.
2. Devotional Exercises.
3. Roll Call of Officers.
4. Remarks by the Presiding Officer.
5. Reading of Minutes of the Previous Meeting.
6. Unfinished Business.
8. Applications for Membership.
9. Report of Special Committees.
10. Report of Standing Committees.
11. Admission of New Members.
12. Good and Welfare.
13. Closing Remarks.
14. Receipts of the Meeting.
Section 2. Monthly Reports.
All locals must send monthly reports and returns to the Headquarters.
Section 3. Names and Addresses of Officers.
The names and addresses of the officers of all locals must be filed at Headquarters. It is the duty of the local to send this information to the headquarters within ten days from the date of election.
Section 4.Time and Place of Regular Meetings.
All locals shall inform the Headquarters of their time and place of regular meetings.
Section 5. Oath of Office.
Each elected officer shall take the following Oath of Office before he is installed:
(Repeat, with right band upraised.)
I (Full Name), solemnly pledge to uphold, defend and protect the Constitution of the Ethiopian World Federation, Incorporated, and to perform faithfully the duties of my office to the best of my ability. So help me YAH.
Admission of New Members.
Each new member shall make the following pledge:
(Repeat, with right arm upraised.)
I solemnly pledge to do all that I can to carry out the aims and objects of the Ethiopian World Federation, Incorporated, and to abide by its Constitution and By-Laws.
Appointment of Committees. The President shall appoint the chairmen and members of all committees, except in cases where provision is made in the Constitution for election of members to any committee.
Removal of Officers. The President shall have the right to remove any officer from an appointive office.
All members, committees, and units must submit their suggestions, recommendations, findings, and reports to the Executive Committee for its approval, before such suggestions, recommendations, findings and reports shall be presented to the general body of the local.
Application for Charter. All applications for charters shall be made to the Executive Council of the Ethiopian World Federation, Incorporated, on prescribed Application Forms. These forms can be obtained from the Headquarters upon, request.
Section 11. No officer or member shall discuss the business of the Ethiopian World Federation, Incorporated, in public or with any person or persons who are not active members of the Federation.
Section 12. Expense of Delegates. Each local shall bear the expenses of its own delegates and should in case it is found necessary for the Executive Council to send a special delegate or delegates to any local, that local may be required to pay the expenses of the delegate or delegates.
End of the Constitution.
Attorney Lewis emphasized the oneness of the Black race everywhere, saying:
“The destiny of the Black man in Ethiopia is just as important to me as the destiny of the African man in Harlem. An African man from Jamaica or Trinidad or Georgia is the same. The white man has been trying to divide us on that issue for a long time. I believe in the omnipotence above and in the Bible. I believe that princes shall come out of Ethiopia. I believe that the destiny of the African man is in the stars and soon will come to the realization of his destiny here on this earth. The difference between Black Americans and West Indians is that on the way from Africa, some of our fore parents dropped off in Jamaica and others came on to the United States.” Mr Mathew E. Gardner, EWF Chairman said: “We will profit by the mistakes of the past. In spite of past defeats, the work must go on until freedom is assured. The Ethiopian World Federation is THE ORGANIZATION, not merely an organization. Unity of all Black people in the United States, Africa and elsewhere is our goal. Soon the white man, our oppressor, will realize that the African man is united.”
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