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last update :16/8/2015

The Ethiopian World Federation, Incorporated, is a not-for-profit membership organization, incorporated in the State of New York, United States of America and registered by the Internal Revenue Services as a 501 (C) 4 (civic- league, social welfare) making the organization, tax exempt.
This organization came into being on August 25, 1937 in New York City, through the efforts of Black Americans who sent a delegation consisting of three prominent Harlem figures, all leaders of the black organization known as the United Aid for Ethiopia. Reverend William Lloyd Imes, Pastor of the prestigious St. James Presbyterian Church, Philip M. Savory of the Victory Insurance Company and co-owner of the New York Amsterdam News, and Mr. Cyril M Philp, secretary of the United Aid, sailed to England in the summer of 1936 to speak with H.I.M. Emperor Haile Selassie I concerning financial matters.
In response, the Emperor empowered his personal physician Dr. Malaku E. Bayen to establish the Ethiopian World Federation, Incorporated with the purpose set out in the following preamble: “We the Black People of the World, in order to effect Unity, Solidarity, Liberty, Freedom and self-determination, to secure Justice and maintain the Integrity of Ethiopia, which is our divine heritage, do hereby establish and ordain this constitution for The Ethiopian World Federation, Incorporated”.
The Constitution and By-Laws is, as one would expect, a very careful and business like document, having articles which deal with aims and objects, membership, international officers and their duties, conventions, elections, meetings, local units, their establishment and organization, committees, impeachment of officers, units, benefits, amendments, order of business, etc.
The Ethiopian World Federation is an important organisation in more ways than one: it was the first institution to emanate from a political decision made by Haile Selassie I, Emperor of Ethiopia, with respect to the black communities. Not withstanding its fragility, it remains active today.

The EWF was crucial during the formative years is when Rastafari evolved from a voice suppressed in Jamaica to one receiving international recognition. Joseph Nathaniel Hibbert, Archibald Dunkley and other early Rastafari leaders were EWF foundational members.  Leonard P. Howell wrote for the EWF newspaper, the Voice of Ethiopia. In 1939, he was the first to break away from the EWF by establishing the the Ethiopian Salvation Society. A year later Howell established the Pinnacle settlement. On July 25, 1941, EWF Local #17 member Joseph Nathaniel Hibbert established a branch of the Ethiopian Mystic Masons. Six years later, Bredda Arthur, Phillip Panhandle, Kurukong and others founded the Youth Black Faith in Trench Town, West Kingston, Jamaica. From this emerged the Nyahbinghi Order as it is known today.
It was in 1958 that EWF member Charles Edwards (aka Prince Emmanuel) established the Ethiopia Africa Black International Congress and Church of Salvation at 54 B Spanish Town Road.
Also, it was EWF Local #15 member Vernon Carrington (aka Prophet Gad) who established the Twelve Tribes of Israel in Kingston.
It is directly out of the EWF that so many of the Houses of Rasta have formed.
Dispite this, the history of the EWF is mostly disregarded and not known by most people to be a big part of the livity. This is probably due to the difficult relationsip the two have had with eachother.

ISTORY EWF

The foundation of the EWF while war was raging in Ethiopia, was established in
1936 in Harlem, New York, representing several American black associations: the United Aidfor Ethiopia, the Ethiopian Research Council and the Medical Committeefor the Defense of Ethiopia. It was led by Dr Phillip Savory, accompanied by Reverend William Imes and Cyril Philips, who made a very discreet departure from the United States so as not to be obstructed by American authorities.They went to Bath, England, where the Emperor was in exile. The delegates met with Haile Selassie, Melaku Beyen and Dr Charles Martin (Worqneh Eshete), to whom several documents were delivered, including strong criticisms of John H. Shaw, the consul – a white man – who represented Ethiopia in the United States. One pressing request of the mission was to receive a representative of the Emperor on American soil, in order to lend legitimacy to the actions undertaken by various pro-Ethiopian associations and to channel the funds yet to be received by the Emperor.
Their request was approved and on September 1936, Melaku Beyen arrived with his family in New York to found the Ethiopian World Federation.

FOUNDERS

Melaku Beyen (1900–1940) had done his preparatory studies in Bombay, India; along with Beshawered Habte-Wold and Werqu Gobene, he was one of the first Ethiopians to have studied in the United States. All three were registered at Muskingum College in Ohio. Werqu never finished his studies, whereas Beshawered received his degree in chemistry in 1928 and Melaku his degree in economy in 1929. Melaku’s stay in the United States was marked by his closeness to African Americans. He recruited the aviators Hubert Julianand John Robinson for the emperor and married an Afro-American woman.

Melaku was eminently qualified to succeed in the mission of federating thepro-Ethiopian organisations. On his return to New York in1936, here-encountered the racialised spaces which had changed little during hisabsence, and set quickly to work. He travelled throughout the United States, organised public meetings, made many speeches, and set up the Haile Selassie Fund Drive, aimed at the financial mobilisation of the black lower middleclass and tradesmen in Harlem. The journal Voice of Ethiopia (VOE), whose first issue was published in January 1937, served as a forum to publicise Melaku’s actions, to report on anti-fascism, and to teach the history of Ethiopia, as well as offering a directory of the businesses in Harlem and a means of advertising community activities. To provide an institutional frame- work for these pro-Ethiopian activities, Melaku founded, on 25 August 1937, the EWF whose Local 1, as the head office was called, was situated in New York.
The primary goal of the EWF was set forth thus in its constitution:
To promote the love and good will among Ethiopians at home or abroad in order to maintain the integrity and the sovereignty of Ethiopia, to disseminate the ancient Ethiopian culture among our members, to correct wrongs, to end oppression and to cut out for ourselves and our posterity a destiny worthy of our ideal of perfect humanity and the aim for which YAH created us; not only to save ourselves from annihilation but find our place in the sun; in this effort we are determined to seek peace and to pursue it, for this is YAH,s will for man.

Making an indirect allusion to the call, popularised by Marcus Garvey, to Africans at home and abroad, the EWF clearly formulated its ambition of touching the dispersed “Ethiopians”, and thus contributed to nurturing theracial identification linking the Ethiopians from Ethiopia and the black Americans who were supposed to be “the Ethiopians abroad”. The racial solidarity considered as a result of this identification had long been advocated by Melaku, and assumed a concrete and material form at that time , these two thoughts, racial solidarity and the immortal determination of I&I people to be free, have become realities and offer the greatest assurance of the perpetuation of the independence of Ethiopia.
Local 1 in New York continued its fundraising drives, organised balls andevening events in honour of Ethiopia and the emperor, and invited many per-sonalities passing through Harlem to perform.
The EWF was structured precisely around “international officers” residing in New York: a president, first and second vice-presidents, an executive secretary, a treasurer, an organiser and a chaplain. With a few additional members, they formed the executive council. Groups of at least twenty-five persons desirous of forming a local affiliated to the federation had to apply to the executive council to obtain a charter enabling them to elect their own officers.
By 1938, nearly ten locals had opened in the United States; in 1939they rose to nineteen, with twenty-two pending applications for the creation of new locals.
These branches opened quickly in the United States, especially Chicago, whose local was very active thanks to its president, Harry Broom. Like Melaku, he had spent years travelling throughout the south of the country to rally forces to the Ethiopian cause.
The first international congress of the federation was held in July 1939 in New York and allowed many delegates to meet and prestigious guests tospeak. The Earthday of Haile Selassie I was celebrated with a great ball and the congress ended in a parade of the Ethiopian colours organised by Colonel Robinson. In 1940 there were twenty-two active EWF branches, including one in Latin America and another in the Caribbean. The first Jamaican local opened in June 1939, followed in November by Honduras and Havana, Cuba. Moreover, thanks to the impact of its press organ – the Voice of Ethiopia – letters and funds were received by the headquarters of the federation from places as distant as the islands of the Caribbean, Panama, Colombia, Venezuela, Jerusalem, Sudan, Nigeria and Brazil. Whereas the real extent of the financial support of the EWF to the Ethiopian cause is hard to estimate, its moral support may be appreciated from the speedy creation of these national and international branches.The various branches of the EWF reposed on the historical geographies of Ethiopianism and Garveyism and drew the contours of a Pan-African spacein which converged the identification of black people with the Ethiopian people and a global popular uprising supporting the war effort. Melaku Beyen recognised the EWF’s symbolic debt to Marcus Garvey’s UNIA, but he did so tardily, in 1940. On 4 May 1940, one year before the liberation of Ethiopia, Melaku Beyen passed away due to fragile health. This was a great loss for the federation, for he had become its symbol and source of inspiration. In addition to his family, he left another Ethiopian, Lejj Araya Abebe, who had joined him in New York at the command of the Emperor. Araya Abebe had served as the treasurer of the federation and was in charge of Amharic lessons at the Voice of Ethiopia. After Melaku Beyen’s death, and up until his return to Ethiopia in 1943, Araya Abebe remained the sole link between the EWF andthe Ethiopian government.

Added to this renewed identification between the Ethiopians and the black people of the West, were two other elements that characterised the EWF. First, was its pan-African perspective, sustained in the Voice of Ethiopia. This was done through articles on Ethiopia, Haiti, on the black presence in the United States, in the Caribbean and in Africa. Melaku Beyen wrote in it, “We are out to create the United States of Africa”, a political slogan which was to remain at the heart of the pan-African issues that arose at the time of the African independences. Certain branches of the EWF offerd classes in Amharic and Ethiopian history and published numerous inserts on black “heroes” as well as reviews of books by W.E.B. Du Bois, George Padmore and Joel Rogers. G. Padmoreand Nnamdi Azikiwe themselves contributed to the
Voice of Ethiopia.
The second element characteristic of the EWF was its ecumenical perspective, which may be illustrated by a meeting held at the beginning of 1955 in the small theatre of the YMCA in Harlem. There, the EWF presented, to an audience composed of Christians, Ethiopian Falasha Jews, Moslem Copts, all in their colourful costumes and headdress”, a forty minute recording of the Ethiopian orthodox liturgy.
The evening continued with short addresses by Ethiopian students and EWF officers, including Mayme Richardson who sang “Ethiopia”, a hymn of her own composition. A film,
Focus on Ethiopia, was also shown. The cohabitation between these unusual religious persuasions and the sharing of an Ethiopian liturgical recording amply illustrate the extent to which the identification with Ethiopia traversed the black congregations. Inscribed in its constitution and in the practices of its members, the religious aspect of the EWF did not preclude political prerogatives but contributed to making it into an inclusive space where members of various congregations, independent or established churches alike, could come together around a common concern for the symbolic and political value of Ethiopia.

EWF IN JAMAICA

The first Jamaican local of the EWF opened in 1939 Kingston Jamaica at the instigation of Paul Earlington. Born in 1912 in the ghetto, he was a “scout” of the Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNIA) in 1925 and found Garvey extremely fascinating. He had heard of Ras Tafari before the 1930 coronation, and a few years later had a “vision of the King” in which Haile Selassie I reportedly told him: “I have a work for you to do.”
Well acquainted with all the first preachers of Rastafari and the militants against the Italo-Ethiopian war, along with a few others, he wrote to the EWF in New York to express his intention to open a local of the federation in Jamaica. Thanks to a positive response, in June
1939, a year after the great popular rising of 1938, eight hundred persons attended the opening ceremony of Local 17 of the EWF in Kingston with L.F.C. Mantle as president and Paul Earlington as vice president.
The Jamaican branch of the EWF acted “to maintain the integrity of Ethiopia” and declared its loyalty “to the cause of universal freedom of Blacks”, but nevertheless requested the protection and assistance of the Jamaican government. However, such a protection could not protect the militants from themselves, and the first years of the local were marked by a constant change of officers. C.P. Jackson, a mechanic, was president in January 1940, and Catherine M. Green succeeded him by February 1940, when the local had already registered seventy members. The meetings were attended in evening dress, in a room rented for £ 6 a month, and concerts were occasionally organised to raise funds. But Paul Earlington left for the United States and Local 17 soon collapsed. Another local, Local 31, was opened with William Powell as president and a few Rastafari as officers. This new group prevented bearded Rastafari from becoming members, whereas most Rastafari wore beards.
This discrimination against bearded Rastafari might appear secondary, but it underlines, on the contrary, the importance of appearance. Throughout the history of the movement, the treatment of hair was an element of distinction and debate among the three categories of Rastafari: the combsome, who combed their hair, the bearded, and the wearers of dreadlocks 
who were opposed to all baldheads, hence non-Rastafari.
When Cecil G. Gordon, a more secular activist, took over the presidency of Local 31 in 1942, his refusal to integrate the bearded Rastafari into the EWF led to the creation of other informal and non-recognised groups, thus fragmenting the base of legitimacy of the pan-Ethiopian organisation. A Rastafari and long time officer of the EWF who lives in Shashemene since1981 explains: At dem times Rasta wasn’t invited as members (by EWF), we were seen as escapist, drop out of society, ganja smokers and even denied employment. When we try to attend a meeting of the EWF, we could only stay outside by the window and we hear dem a deliberate whatever it is. But still dem don’t like our presence, because what we show dem is HIM (His Imperial Majesty) is the Messiah and yet you have different religion among them, Catholic, Presbyterian, Church of England, Baptists. . . that’s why dem can’t have a steady progressive EWF.
Rastafari had a hard time finding their place within the EWF because of their faith, and because the officers who had national and international responsibilities and were dominating the administrative relationship within the EWF between Kingston and New York, were not Rastafari and were reluctant to embrace them. Due to such controversies, the EWF initially had little effect on the movement in Jamaica. Its incapacity to channel Rastafari passion for Ethiopia and to integrate Rastafari into its official structures had serious consequences regarding the circulation of an important piece of news

LAND GRAND IN ETHIOPIA

 land became available in Ethiopia for the members of the organisation. It was by mail that the EWF in Jamaica learned of the existence of land available in Ethiopia for its members. On 8 July 1950, George A. Bryan, secretary of the organisation in New York, informed Miss Iris Davis, the secretary of Local 31in Kingston, that the EWF “has been granted land concession in Ethiopia” in recognition of the organisation’s support during the years of war,and that a house had been provided in Addis Ababa. This letter insisted on the fact that all EWF members were concerned since a petition had been sent to the emperor on their behalf. Bryan pressed the Jamaican local to assemble its members in order to relay this information and insisted on the qualities required of the candidates for departure: “only those who have proven or shall have proven their worth as true Ethiopians”. Two months later, Richard A.Brown, then in charge of the administration of Local 31, wrote to the governor of Jamaica to inform him, in the obsequious language reserved for official correspondence, that the EWF in Jamaica was indeed concerned by this donation of land, and asked him for the support of the government with respect to expenditure required for the journey of the three hundred and fifty members of the local, since “according to present economic conditions now existing in the Island we are financially embarrassed and cannot find the necessary finance for transportation”. Probably taken by surprise, a week later the colonial secretary requested precise details: how many people intended to go to Ethiopia, what was the cost of the voyage and, almost ingenuously, whether they were all of “Ethiopian descent”. In response, the officers of Local 31 confirmed that all the members of the EWF were descendants of Ethiopians. On this occasion, 360 persons were counted, and still others were announced, probably attracted to the local by this news. Certain they would receive permanent residence in Ethiopia, Brown nonetheless asked for some time to obtain details from the EWF in New York. Bishop Lawson, international president of the EWF visited Jamaica On 27 September 1950, the Daily Gleaner published the decision taken by the executive council of the colonial secretariat to study the possibilities of immigration to Liberia and Ethiopia, thus fuelling the rumours on the possibility of government support. In a hasty exchange of letters and telephone calls, the governor was informed of the visit to Kingston by a person in charge of the EWF in New York, and an appointment was fixed between Governor John Huggins and Bishop Lawson. Bishop Lawson, of the Church of Our Lord Jesus Christ, was then the international president of the EWF and had already travelled to Ethiopia. On 26 January1951 he became the president of a new American branch of the EWF, Local 26. Having arrived in Kingston on 8 November 1950, Bishop Lawson had time to meet the officers and members of Local 31 prior to the official meeting, which was held on 13 November. The minutes of this meeting, as reflected in the report of John Huggins, reveal the gap that existed between the EWF in New York and the EWF in Kingston. Lawson, who arrived with business card in hand, began by stating that the term ‘Ethiopian’ was generic and non specific, and thus applied to all of Africa, and not only to the country of Ethiopia. He conceded that the federation was closely related to Ethiopia and that one of its objectives was to encourage the emigration of people who could become useful citizens. Lawson was unable to say how many members had already made the trip to Ethiopia but insisted on the non-sectarian, ecumenical character of the EWF. In particular, he distanced himself very clearly from the popular religious forms he had been able to observe during his short stay in Jamaica. As reported by the governor: “He told me that he had met some members of the Ras Tafari cult and was shocked at their belief in the Emperor as divine. The Federation had no connection at all with the Ras Tafaris.”
This position was devastating: the EWF in New York refused to maintain connections with Rastafari. Lawson also took the occasion to report that the Jamaican members of the federation had the impression the government was going to take care of the travelling expenses of the persons accepted by the Ethiopian government. Governor Huggins immediately challenged this idea, by stating that the investigations in progress were “entirely exploratory and must not be regarded as indicating that assistance will be given by Government to emigration to Africa”.
Bishop Lawson departed extremely disturbed by two concerns: the poverty of the Jamaican members and their cultural proximity to Rastafari. The position of the New York EWF was then clear: no finances were to be expected from Jamaican members, and the organisation dissociated itself from the popular practices which had a tendency to amalgamate its objectives with devotion to the Emperor of Ethiopia. Eleven years after the establishment of the first EWF branch in Kingston, the refusal to take into account and to integrate Rastafari into the organisation persisted regardless of their numerical strength and their passion for Ethiopia, thus signalling the tenacious prejudice of this pan-African elite with respect to the
sufferers. Not withstanding the failure of this international contact of the EWF during the
1950s, Rastafari and many secular activists were operating in full swing. The formal and informal groups multiplied, influenced by the news of land available in Ethiopia. Letters flooded the government, in the image of those of Joseph Myers who stated that six hundred members of the Ethiopian United Body were ready to leave for Ethiopia.
Claudius Barnes, an officer of the Afro West Indian Welfare League who had participated in the united 1948 UNIA petition, declared that 1, 540 members were ready to leave for Liberia and 1, 500 for Ethiopia. On the destruction of Pinnacle in 1954, founded by Leonard Howell, the dreadlocks flowed into Kingston, residing in the poorest neighbourhoods, squatting on garbage disposal sites and empty lots. During the year of the celebration of the Silver Jubilee, the twenty fiveyears of reign of the Emperor of Ethiopia, a certain visit had the effect of a bomb in the small Jamaican society.
The visit of Mayme Richardson, international organiser of the EWF, born in
1912 in Michigan and a black, Catholic, soprano singer and an officer of the EWF in charge of international organisation, after giving a number of prestigious concerts in the United States, left in 1948 to give a series of twenty two concerts in Palestine, followed by performances in Cyprus and Egypt, was invited to Ethiopia and discovered Addis Ababa:
There’s something strange, strange like magic about putting your foot on the soil of Africa that gives you a sensation you’ve never had before in your life. I felt it and experienced it but cannot explain it. Yes, I was completely overcome by the spirit of freedom, untrammelled freedom! I was at home once more with my people. I felt happy, secured and moved. It was indeed the land of my heritage.
The emotion she expressed is hardly astonishing: this was Richardson’s first encounter with Ethiopia, a land to which her imagination was deeply attached, she found herself in a place where the majority of the population was black, where what differentiated her from others was no longer colour, but language, attitude or attire. She performed before the Emperor and was completely fascinated by the Ethiopian court, “the royalty of these great Blacks”, by the gold ornaments and the pageantry. She reported these words of the Emperor in response to the spirituals she had sung: No one could hear you sing and interpret the songs of such a great race without being deeply moved and touched. They are indeed soul stirring and borne out of hearts praying and fighting for freedom. I recognise the kinship between American blacks and our own people.
The idea of the kinship between Ethiopians and black Americans must have touched Richardson deeply. The testimony of her visit to Ethiopia was widely diffused in the press and her account was quoted by African Opinion until 1969.
Motivated by this experience, she resumed her activities in the federation as soon as she returned. She was present at most of the great congresses of the EWF, founded Local 34
in Chicago, to which she gave the name of Princess Tsehay, one of the daughters of the Emperor, and, above all, ceaselessly diffused the news about this gift of land and the possibility of settlement – a prospect which seemed increasingly feasible.
The EWF was then at a crucial turning point, one at which its existence was at stake: most of its officers had been present since its foundation in 1937 and were well advanced in age. They had militated during the Italo-Ethiopian war and since the death of Melaku Beyen in
1940 had been directly involved in the collection of funds, the diffusion of information on Ethiopia, the survival of the organisation, and some had even travelled to Ethiopia. The thirteenth annual convention of the EWF, held in New York in July 1952, celebrated with “honour and devotion” the sixtieth birthday of the Emperor and initiated discussions on the state of the EWF. A brilliant speaker, Brother Johnson, president of Local 12 in Kansas City, asked that the black people intensify their efforts to make the federation grow throughout the world. Mayme Richardson, who was more pragmatic, asked for the launching of a vast membership campaign, “especially to attract young people”.
It was not in the United States that Richardson managed to find younger and more dynamic members. Rather, she went to the place where real popular support of the federation was to be found: in the Caribbean and especially in Jamaica. Richardson arrived in Jamaica in September 1955 where she remained until the end of October, before visiting other Caribbean islands. For several years she had pressed the federation to develop its base and to attract new, younger members, in order to renew their ranks. A large gathering in her honour was organised at Coke Hall where the room was packed and many organisations present, including the EWF, UNIA, and the Afro-West Indian WelfareLeague. In 1954 she had met the Emperor when he visited the United States and she carried a message to the audience, reported by the Jamaican press: Haile Selassie wants the people “to know and learn more of their ancient history; to learn their native language; to know and learn more about their own religion; and the true fidelity of Christ”
There was a land grant now in Ethiopia and black people could go there and claim a bit. But they had to go in groups. Richardson also stated that the Emperor was building a fleet which would sail from Addis Ababa to the United States and “there was a possibility, that the ships would one day come here”. The potent symbolism of the boat, which resonated with the character of an insular society, cannot be underestimated; it acted as an echo of the programme of Marcus Garvey and his fleet, the Black Star Line. No more was needed to raise the enthusiasm of the assembly, later relayed by the rumour which spread throughout the city. Contrary to the announcement made in 1950, the federation recognised in 1955 that its real base of support was in Jamaica and accepted the invitation to address the Jamaican activists. Furthermore, coinciding with the visit of Richardson, an official letter from the executive committee of the New York EWF, addressed to Local 31 in Kingston, disseminated the same information: 1, land had been given through the EWF to the “black people of the West” who had helped Ethiopia in its time of distress; 2, this land was the personal property of the Emperor; (3) as the Ethiopian government was not prepared for a mass migration, the migrants had to be of “pioneer caliber”; (4) people were to leave in groups and to promote a spirit of collective co-operation; (5) professionals (carpenters, plumbers, masons, electricians, and so on) could help the Ethiopians and learn from them; (6) as the EWF in New York was unable to contribute financially to the journeys, the EWF locals were to raise funds in view of supporting their members.
This news resulted in a considerable growth of the EWF and of the Rastafari movement; many informal groups became locals of the federation with the support of Mayme Richardson. Cecil G. Gordon left Local 31 to found Local 19. These became the two only branches that were officially registered with the government. The officers of the Afro-West Indian Brotherhood, who had visited London in May1955 in the costumes of Ethiopian pageantry,
announced that their organisation was to merge with the EWF, to become Local 7.
The Brotherhood Solidarity of United Ethiopians and the AfricanCultural League merged to form Local 37. Joseph Nathaniel Hibbert merged his organisation, the Ethiopian Coptic Faith, with Local 27 , and Archibald Dunkley’s King of Kings Mission became Local 77. Other branches in Kingston included Locals 19, 33, 40 and 41, the last being exclusively female. Members of the Ethiopian Youth Cosmic Faith affiliated themselves with Locals 7 and 33. In the country, Local 11 was opened in Rock Hall, St Andrew, Local 32 in Montego Bay, and Local 25 in Spanish Town, the country’s secondcity. The success of the EWF, resulting from news of the landgrant in Ethiopia, did not, however, guarantee the establishment of locals with institutionally solid and effective administrations. Most locals were short lived and unstable, and certain ones, like that of Mortimo Planno, functioned only occasionally.
Other organisations remained distant from the EWF, in the image of the Ethiopian body which was later divided into several branches. Certain members of the EWF developed their own organisations, while continuing their affiliation with the federation.
Lastly, many Rastafari remained non-affiliated and independent of any collective body.

In this process of multiplication and fragmentation of the EWF locals in Jamaica, there were still tensions between locals headed by Rastafari and by non-Rastafari, and the latter were not willingly sharing the control they had of the administrative relationship they entertained with the EWF in New York. 
Often, locals headed by Rastafari “became insubordinate to the baldhead initial charters”.
The conflict between Rastafari and non-Rastafari was reformulated in the hierarchy of control and power within the EWF. However, the distinction was never very clear between formal and informal locals due to the constant fusion and fission between the groups, which sometimes made Rastafari become members of the more established locals. Furthermore, con-flicts between locals, including those composed of bearded or dreadlocks Rastafari, were rife:
 You have rivalry at the local level, because we’re not following the constitution and procedures, we were still Rastas. We become enemy of our own thing, ’cause we’re not behaving to how we should and it’s a business like corporation. You have conventions, and installations of officers, and duties, but at that level, InI Rastas wasn’t prepared, I tell you.
The legitimacy assumed by the EWF, thanks to the announcement of the land donation, was important, but did not suffice to transform the EWF into the major organisation among Rastafari, whose claim of the right to return to Africa was increasingly diffused and pressing. The Rastafari were incapable of coordination based on a single institution for reasons related to appearance, organisational methods, and the predominance of charismatic, sometimes authoritarian personalities, but also because of a lack of previous administrative skills and by reason of their living conditions. These economic and social conditions curtailed the constant and regular commitment to multiple meetings in various places. The fragmented collective practices, added to the fragility of the organisations, to form one of the enduring structural characteristics of the Rastafari movement, needed for the departure to Ethiopia of Jamaican members of the EWF.
While numerous Rastafari contested the direction of the EWF, which they thought to be counter productive, only a few seized the possibilities represented by the EWF and sent the necessary documents directly to New York in order to have a new local opened in 1958, Local 43. Local 43 was located on Unity Lane in Waterhouse, a poor area of Kingston sometimes referred to as “Fire-house”, and bordered by a gully. Salomon Wolfe headed Local 43 and he was strictly a EWF brother. He was a businessman, very cool, and he had great sympathy for those in need. He was a very charitable I-drin and a long time Rasta. Harold Reid, a resident of Waterhouse and a member of Local 25 of the EWF, remembers the “church” of Salomon Wolfe: Wolfe is a man who have a church, a temple like, keep a likkle service like, and you a go outside and listen to what him a say. Man deh a smoke herb, bigger man than me, and hear dem a likkle reasoning. So is deh so now me get my likkle wisdom, through likkle reasoning, so I get groundation of Africa, cause de man who sit dung dere a talk two, three, four, a whol’ heap of man did dere fe done a talk, youknow . . .
Dem sitting down were Rastaman?  Yes! . . . They were Garveyites, Bedwardites and Binghi deh deh too, Federation . . . All the people were speaking of Africa and then we decide we a come Africa . . .Some talk about Liberia? Liberia, Sierra Leone, Ghana man used to talk about, but Ethiopia, speak about Ethiopia more hayläñña than Ghana and de rest of de country dem. Ethiopia mesay to you. Reid used an Amharic term, hayläñña, which means strong, powerful, and conveys the particular place of Ethiopia within the African landscape produced by Rastafari. A witness to the lengthy reasoning sessions held on Unity Lane and the influence of Salomon Wolfe, Reid arrived in Ethiopia in 1973. Eventually, a committee created by Local 43 of the EWF and composed of seven people travelled to the EWF annual convention in New York in July 1964. At this congress, the delegation of Local 43 who had hoped to make the trip from New York to Ethiopia were faced with the reality that the “EWF, as a Back-to-Africa organisation, international in scope but does not have a repatriation committee”. In New York, they realised that return was not the primary objective of the EWF. Nothing in the EWF’s constitution ascribed this role, and American members, who were both small in number and older in age than the Jamaicans, were in no hurry to go to Ethiopia.
An important distinction can clarify the objectives of Rastafari as compared with those of American and non-Rastafari members of the EWF:
The Rastafarians have always claimed that Ethiopia is their rightful heritage and their ultimate goal is to sit under their own ‘vine and fig tree’. The Land Grant therefore was considered by the Rastafarians to be a direct fulfilment of prophecy. They were convinced that the time had come for the sons of Africa to return. In short, to the EWF, Inc., the Back-to-Africa movement meant migration; to the Rastafarians, repatriation.
If Rastafari saw repatriation as different from migration, it was mainly because of their spiritual perspective. Land had been granted by the Emperor Himself and given the special relationship they believed they had with him, Rastafari defended the idea that the gift was specifically addressed to them. Thus, land in Shashemene became a powerful argument for repatriation, interpreted literally through the lens of biblical prophecies about the return to Israel. As a result, Rastafari viewed repatriation as a divine operation that only YAH could cause to occur, not the Jamaican government. This was the theological function of the return, which had often resulted in a kind of passivity and a culture of waiting and expectation.
However, not all Rastafari were passively or mystically waiting. Some took steps to make return happen, and, by extension, make the prophecy real –after all, the land was there in Ethiopia and available to members of the EWF. Facing the necessity to rely only on them selves, members of Local 43 joined with Local 31, which at the time had large numbers of members. They launched an appeal for funds, with the support of the international president of the EWF, Cester Garden, and the authorisation of the prime minister of Jamaica, Dr Donald Sangster. The objective was to “transport pioneers and to help settle them and develop the land at Shashamane”.
A Rastafari, Zeptha Malcolm, contributed more than half the funds and Local 31 contributed almost one third. Other subscribers were five individuals and four companies. But once the funds were collected to finance the trip, a fundamental question arose: who was ready to go? A woman was ready, Carmen Clarke, born in1934 in St Mary, who grew up in Jones Town and lived in Trench Town, Kingston. A Rastafari, she was an active and militant volunteer in her community. Well read, she often filled in the position of secretary and wrote letters on behalf of the EWF. She remembers: The local I was living with before, number
31, has a lot of members, whole heap of members, I think people dem they ready to accept the doctrine and the preaching of Ethiopia through the federation down there but their mind, their mind wasn’tready for Ethiopia. Because when I ready to come to Ethiopia, there was people who in that local, years upon years who died, you know, even some before I left, they were in the local going night and day, going all round and they didn’t ready, they never even have a passport when the calling come, the local is going to send people to Ethiopia, some of them no have a passport. Being in the local for years, singing “send me back to Ethiopia land” but they didn’t ready, their mind didn’t ready, (just) their mouth talking.
The importance of Local 31 in Clarke’s life is clearly emphasised. It was where she lived, where most of her activities converged and where her social relationships were formed. Clarke criticised the majority of members of the local. They spent a lot of time there, always talking about Ethiopia, but did not take the possibility of departure seriously. This general unpreparedness of the majority of Local 31 members illustrates how difficult it was to move from rhetoric to practice. For most individuals, Rastafari or not, “back to Africa”remained a slogan, a claim closely related to their status as impoverished and marginalised black people, a tenacious critique of Jamaican society. But Clarke took the idea literally. She was thirty-five years old and ready: Once I started and get the doctrine, I’m ready, I’m ready to take the trip, all my friends, outside [of] Federation [say] “you crazy, where are you going to Africa, people are starving to death” and they talk. I say OK, it’s alright, let me go and see for myself.
She was determined. Thinking back about those who stayed behind, Clarke was still wondering what the value of all those sermons over the years was, all these words, if they were not followed by concrete action when the opportunity arose. She represented an “old generation” of Rastafari: devout, militant and without dreadlocks. This group of five adults and a child were from Locals 31 and 43. Some members of the group delayed their departure because of problems with passports, but on 5 September 1969 they left, finally, via New York. The Daily Gleaner ran the headline “Mission off to Develop 700 Acres in Ethiopia”.
There was Clarke, the only woman and unmarried, and Zeptha Malcolm, a dreadlocks Rastafari born in Cuba in 1927 to a Jamaican mother and a Cuban father, who had arrived in Jamaica at the age of seventeen. He was a construction worker who had seven children with two women, but only one of his daughters accompanied him to Ethiopia.
Frederick Pryce changed his mind while in New York, and he returned to Jamaica. Gerald Brissett was a skilled worker, and Salomon Wolfe made the trip as he was president of Local
43. They all had to invest their own money to pay for their trip, as fundraising had been insufficient. The group stayed for eleven days in New York where they were baptised into the Ethiopian Orthodox Church. After stop overs in Athens and Nairobi, they arrived in Addis Ababa, and despite some difficulties related to vaccinations they were allowed to disembark. They were followed a few weeks later by the head of the Jamaican government, Jamaica Labour Party leader Hugh Shearer, and by the representative of the opposition People’s National Party, Michael Manley.

Conscious of the importance of the trip in the Jamaican popular imagination, the politicians could not miss the opportunity to align themselves with the issue of repatriation, an issue that had been set aside since the independence of Jamaica. This 1969 group joined the first group of ‘pioneers’ who had arrived the previous year. The new comers had made the trip to Ethiopia under the auspices of the EWF, even if they had to oppose the international officers, find their own funding, and transform the organisation from the ground up so as to achieve their purpose. Eight years later, in 1969, Rastafari were successful, and they became the first Jamaican members of the EWF to settle in Shashemene. They would eventually be followed by other settlers, including members of Local 15, which was soon to become internationally known as the Twelve Tribes of Israel.

 

CONSTITUTION AND BY-LAWS OF THE ETHIOPIAN WORLD FEDERATION, INCORPORATED


On Sept 3, 1937: EWF Presented Its Charter & Early Rastafari Leaders
Law firm of Delaney, Lewis and Williams presents the Charter of the Ethiopian World Federation, Incorporated at the regular Friday meeting of the Ethiopian World Federation.

In presenting the Charter, Attorney Delaney said,
“I never dreamed that I would be called upon to serve His Majesty Emperor Haile Selassie. Dr. Bayen has come to this country and has felt out its pulse and was able to accomplish his purpose. He knew what he wanted in the charter; he knew what you wanted — an organ that would encompass the whole world wherever Black People live, and he got it. You have a right, a charter, but without the work of each one of you, it will be useless. With this right, there is a responsibility and a duty. It gives me great pleasure to present the Charter.”
EWF Constitution 
ARTICLE I 
NAME, AIMS AND OBJECTS


Section 1. The name of this organization shall be the Ethiopian World Federation, Incorporated.
Section 2. The aims and objects of the Ethiopian World Federation, Incorporated, shall be:
(a). To promote love and good-will among Ethiopians at home and abroad and thereby to maintain the integrity and sovereignty of Ethiopia, to disseminate the ancient Ethiopian culture among its members, to correct abuses, relieve oppression and carve for ourselves and our posterity, a destiny comparable with our idea of perfect manhood and God's purpose in creating us; that we may not only save ourselves from annihilation, but carve for ourselves a place in the Sun: in this endeavor, we determine to seek peace and pursue it., for it is the will of God for man.
(b). To promote and pursue happiness; for it is the goal of human life and endeavor.
(c). To usher in the teaching and practice of the Fatherhood of God and the brotherhood of man.
(d). To promote and stimulate interest among its members in world affairs, and to cultivate a spirit of international goodwill and comity.
(e). To promote friendly interest among its members, to develop a fraternal spirit among them and to inculcate in its members the desire to render voluntary aid and assistance to one another at all times.
(f). To render voluntary aid and protection to its members, without fee or charge for same when in need. And, if necessary, to provide and care for refugees and disabled victims of the Italio-Ethiopian War.
(g) To give concrete material and voluntary aid without fee or charge for the same, to all such refugees and disabled victims and to raise funds by voluntary subscription for the purposes aforementioned. There shall be no charge, fee, beneficiary tax or other assessment upon the members of the Ethiopian World Fed¬eration, Incorporated, except for dues, pro¬vided for in the Constitution and By-Laws of the Ethiopian World Federation, Incorporated.

(h) To encourage its members to develop interest and pride in Democratic institutions and to promote Democratic principles and ideals. May God help us to accomplish these aims and ideals.
Section 3. 
Scope: The Ethiopian World Federation, Incorporated, shall be International in scope.
Section 4. 
Headquarters: The Headquarters of the Ethiopian World Federation, Incorporated, shall be in the City of New York, State of New York, United States of America.
Section 5. 
Colors. The official Colors of the Ethiopian World Federation, Incorporated, shall be the same as the National Colors of Ethiopia Green, Gold and Red.
Section 6. 
Eligibility to Office. Male and female shall be equally eligible to all offices.
Section 7. 
Non-Partisan Character. The Ethiopian World Federation, Incorporated, shall be non-partisan and non-political in character, but in cases where partisan, political, or other issues tend to affect the Ethiopian World Fed¬eration, Incorporated, adversely in the carrying out of its aims and objects, it shall be free to combat such issues with the best legal means at its disposal.
Section 8. No individual who is a member of any other organization, political party, reli¬gious group or sect, which requires that individual to pledge unswerving allegiance to its tenets, thus depriving him of freedom of thought and action which may be necessary in carrying out the aims and objects of the Ethiopian World Federation, Incorporated, sbal1 be elected or appointed to office, or shall al¬low himself to be elected to any office. Any election or appointment to office in violation of this Section, shall be null and void.
ARTICLE II 
MEMBERSHIP
Section 1. The membership shall comprise the BLACK PEOPLES of the world.
Section 2. 
APPLICATION: Application for membership shall be in writing.
Section 3. 
Rejection. The Ethiopian World Federation, Incorporated. shall have the right to reject any application for membership without giving reasons.
Section 4. 
Joining fee. The Ethiopian World Federation, Incorporated, shall have the right to a fix a joining fee. There shall be a joining fee of One Dollar (U.S. $ 1:00). However, The Ethiopian World Federation, Incorporated, through its Executive Council, shall have the right to grant special dispensation to certain areas and to adjust this fee to suit the conditions thereof, provided, however, that in no area the amount effected by the dispensation shall exceed One Dollar (U.S. $1.00).
Section 5. 
Dues: The Ethiopian World Federation, Incorporated, shall have the right to establish membership dues. The membership dues shall be ten cents (U.S. $.10) per week. These dues shall be remitted to the Headquarters.
Section 6.
Unfinancial Members: Any member who is twelve weeks in arrears in the payment of dues shall be unfinancial in the organization.
ARTICLE III 
INTERNATIONAL OFFICERS
Section 1. There shall be the following International Officers of the Ethiopian World Federation, Incorporated:

(a). President
(b). First Vice-President
(c). Second Vice-President
(d). Executive Secretary 

(e). Treasurer 

(f). Organizer 

(g). Chaplain 

Section 2. 
Executive Council. There shall be an Executive Council composed of the elected International Officers, together with three (3) additional members elected by the Convention.
Section 3. 
Duties of International Officers:
(a).The International President shall be the executive head of the Ethiopian World Federation, Inc., and shall reside in the City of New York. It shall be the duty of the International President to preside at the International Conventions and to deliver an address on the state of the Ethiopian World Federation. Incorporated. He shall sign all legal documents and be Chairman of the International Executive Council. It shall be his duty to call Conventions as appointed by law, and in cases of emergency, by and with the consent of the Executive Council, call special conventions.
(b). The First International Vice-President shall reside in the City of New York and shall assume the duties of the International President in his absence or when requested to do so by him.
(c).Second International Vice-President: The 2nd International Vice- President shall per¬form the duties of the First Vice- President in his absences and shall assist the First Vice-¬President in the performance of such duties as may be assigned to him by the President In case of death or permanent disability of the First Vice- President. the International Executive Council shall name the Executive Head to serve until the next general election.
(d). Executive Secretary: The Executive Secretary shall have charge of the main office of the Ethiopian World Federation. Incorpo¬rated, and shall be held responsible to the Executive Council for the conduct of the business thereof All acts of the Executive Secretary shall be subject to the approval of the Executive Council. The Executive Secretary shall appoint all office employees, subject to the approval of the Executive Council and shall when necessary, submit to the Executive Council the name of any member of the office staff for promotion to the head of a department The Executive Secretary shall receive all monies from locals and other sources. All monies so received shall be turned over, within 24 hours, to the Treasurer, who shall give a receipt or receipts to the Executive Secretary. The Executive Secretary shall forward receipts to all locals for monies received from them. The Executive Secretary shall submit quarterly reports to the Executive Council.
(e). Treasurer: It shall be the duty of the International Treasurer to receive all monies from the Executive Secretary. He shall, in conjunctions with other members of the Banking Committee, deposit all amounts of money in the bank or banks designated by the Executive Council. His books shall be open to inspection by the Executive Council at all times. He shall issue receipts for all monies received by him for the organization. He shall pay out monies upon order of the Executive Council only. He shall be bonded by a reliable surety company. The premium for such a bond shall be paid by the organization. He shall be a member of the Executive Council.
(f). International Organizer: It shall be the duty of the International Organizer to organize locals, to supervise locals already established and to keep them in good working order. He shall also perform such other duties as may be assigned to him by the Executive Council. He shall keep the Headquarters in¬formed of his activities from week to week and he shall submit a monthly report.
(g). Absence: Any officer absenting himself from three (3) successive meetings and failing to submit sufficient reason for his absence, this office may be declared vacant by the Executive Council.
Section 4.
The Executive Council of the Ethiopian World Federation, Incorporated, shall instruct locals from time to time on matters not herein mentioned. All questions of procedure not specifically mentioned in this Constitution shall be governed by Robert's Manual of Parliamentary Procedure.
ARTICLE IV 
CONVENTIONS, ELECTIONS, INSTALLATIONS, MEETINGS
Section 1. 
Conventions: There shall be an annual Convention of the Ethiopian World Federation, Incorporated. It shall be called on the sixteenth day of July. The Convention shall select the place of meeting of the succeeding Convention.
Section 2. 
Delegates to the Convention: Each local shall be entitled to representation in Convention by delegates. There shall be 'one delegate for each 25 members up to one hun¬dred, and for each additional one hundred members or part thereof, one additional dele¬gate. One-third (1/3) of the number of duly accredited delegates to any Convention shall constitute a quorum at that Convention.
Section 3. Elections: The election of all international officers shall take place during the Convention. The election shall be by ballot. All locals shall hold their election during the first two weeks in December.
Section 4. Term of Office: All officers, inter¬national and local, shall be elected for a term of one year.
Section 5. Installation: The installation of elected international officers shall be held on a date preceding the closing of the Convention. The installation of officers of locals shall be at the first regular meeting in January following the election.
Section. 6. Uniforms: The Ethiopian World Federation, Incorporated, shall have the right to decide on the kind of uniform, if any, to be worn during parades and Conventions.
Section 7. Meetings: It shall be within the discretion of any local to hold its meetings as often as desired, provided, however, that there shall be held regular meetings twice per month.
Section 8. Nine members in good standing shall constitute a quorum for the transaction of business in the local.
ARTICLE V 
LOCALS
Section 1.
(a). The first unit of the Ethiopian World Federation, Incorporated, in the City of New York shall be known as Local Number One.
(b). The duly elected officers of Local No. I shall be the International Officers, except the President, until a Convention is called and International Officers are duly elected.
Section 2.
(a). The right to issue charters is vested in the Executive Council.
(b). The right to revoke charters is vested in the Executive Council.
ARTICLE VI 
ESTABLISHMENT OF LOCALS
Section 1.
(a). Any twenty-five (25) persons or more, desirous of forming a local, shall apply to the Executive Council for a charter.
(b). The fee for this charter shall be Ten ($10.00) Dollars.
Section 2.
The officers of each local of the Ethiopian World Federation, Incorporated, shall be: President, First Vice-President, Second Vice-Presidents, Treasurer, Financial Secretary, Recording-Corresponding Secretary, Chaplain, Sergeant-at-Arms.
Section 3.
Each local shall establish an Executive Committee. This Executive Committee shall be composed of the President, First Vice-President, Second Vice-President, Treasurer, Financial Secretary, Recording-Corresponding Secretary, Chaplain, Sergeant-at-Arms and the three (3) other members elected by the local.
Section 4. 
Duties of officers-Locals:
(a) President: The President shall preside at all meetings, sign all documents of the local and appoint all committees and units. The President shall have power to call special meetings in the general interest of the organization whenever he deems it necessary. The President shall be ex-officio member of all committees.
(b) Vice-President: It shall be the duty of the Vice-Presidents, in their order to preside at regular meetings in the absence of the President or whenever requested to do so by him or her.
(c) Treasurer: It shall be the duty of the Treasurer to receive from the Financial Secretary all monies belonging to the local giving a voucher for same, and shall deposit or cause to be deposited, twenty-four hours after its receipt, such monies in a bank or banks selected by the Executive Committee. He shall payout monies on order of the Executive Committee only. He shall make a monthly report to the local on a blank provided for the purpose, submitting a certified copy to the Headquarters. He shall be bonded.
(d) Financial Secretary: It shall be the duty of the Financial Secretary to receive all monies from subscriptions, dues, contributions, rallies and special efforts from the members of the local, and from all other sources, give a receipt and keep an accurate record thereof. He shall turn over all such monies to the Treasurer at the close of each meeting and shall demand a voucher therefor. He shall be bonded. The books of the Financial Secretary shall be open to the Executive Committee of the local or to any person authorized by said committee to examine them. The Financial Secretary shall be required to collaborate with the Recording-Corresponding Secretary and shall, on request, give such information as may be required by the Recording Corresponding Secretary of entries or records made in his books. The Financial Secretary shall make a monthly report to the local on a blank provided for the purpose, submitting a signed copy to the Headquarters.
(e) Recording-Corresponding Secretary: It shall be the duty of the Recording Corresponding Secretary to keep a correct record of the minutes and proceedings of the regular meetings. He shall keep a correct list of the members of the local. He shall be required to collaborate with the Financial Secretary and shall on request give such information as may be required by the Financial Secretary of entries or records made in his books. He shall keep on file all reports and communications. He shall affix his signature, together with the seal of the local, to all documents. He shall keep the seal of the local under his personal supervision. He shall read all reports and minutes of previous meetings. He shall be a member of the Executive Committee of the local. The Recording-Corresponding Secretary shall have charge of all books, literature, flags, buttons, stamps and all salable articles of the local and shall turn over the proceeds from the sale thereof to the Financial Secretary.
(f) Chaplain: It shall be the duty of the Chaplain to open and close every meeting of the local with prayer and to minister to the spiritual needs of the members. He shall be responsible. for the moral tone pervading the local. He shall transmit to the local such instructions and literature as shall be sent to him from time to time by the International Chaplain. He shall be a member of the local committee on Complaints and Grievances and of the Sick Committee.
(g) Sergeant-at-Arms: The Sergeant-at-Arms shall attend all meetings of the local and see that the meeting room is in order. He shall attend at the door of the meeting room, prevent the admission of any person who is not entitled to admission, or whose conduct is unbecoming; and when instructed by the President, shall remove from the meeting room any person whose conduct is not in keeping with good order and discipline. He shall perform any and all such other duties pertaining to his office as might be required of him by the President.
ARTICLE VI 
COMMITTEES
Standing Committees: The following committees shall be established:
Section 1. Banking. Membership, Education, Publicity, Sick, Ways & Means, Information, Auditing, Complaints & Grievances, House Committee and such other committees as shall from time to time become necessary provided that such committees are approved by the International Executive Council.
(a). Banking Committee: There shall be a Banking Committee composed of the Presi¬dent, Treasurer and three (3) other members elected from the body. It sha11 be the duty of the Banking Committee to keep a check on the deposits and withdrawals by the Treasurer and to assist him in any way he desires. It shall have access to the bank books held by the Treasurer and may from time to time check with him, his bank accounts and financial dealings.
(b) Membership: It shall be the duty of the Membership Committee to devise plans to increase the membership of the local; to visit delinquent members; to encourage their attendance at the meetings and encourage them in the full performance of their duties.
(c) Education: It shall be the duty of the Committee on Education to provide for the use of the members, books, papers, magazines and all historical and cultural material and literature touching racial questions as well as political, economic, social, health, agricultural and other matters which will aid in the betterment of Black Peoples and humanity in general. This committee shall from time to time plan and conduct educational programs.
(d) Publicity Committee: It shall be the duty of the Committee on Publicity to keep before the public the aims and objects of the organization and the work of the local. It shall endeavor to publicize its activities. It shall be responsible for the distribution of the official organ of the Ethiopian World Federation, Incorporated
(e) Sick Committee: It shall be the duty of the Sick Committee to keep a list of the sick members; to visit them regularly and to encourage the general membership to do so. It shall evince a genuine interest in the sick members, doing all in its power to aid and comfort them. It shall raise funds for their financial assistance; these funds shall be deposited with the Treasurer of the local and kept by him in a separate account. The committee shall recom¬mend to the Executive Committee the nature and amount of the aid that may be given.
(f). Ways and Means: It shall be the duty of the Ways and Means committee to devise plans for raising money to conduct the business of the local.
(g). Information Committee: It shall be the duty of the Committee on Information to gather information for the general welfare of the Federation.
(h). Auditing Committee: There shall be an Auditing Committee of three (3) members. It shall be the duty of the Auditing Committee to make an audit of the books of the local and submit its report to the local with a signed copy of the report to the Headquarters quarterly. The Executive Committee shall be em¬powered to demand an audit at anytime. No member of the Executive Committee shall serve on the Auditing Committee.
(i). House Committee: The House Committee shall have charge of the building and all other physical property belonging to the local. They shall see to it that these are kept in proper order and repaired and shall prepare the house for meetings. They shall make a monthly in¬ventory of all physical property.
(j). Complaints and Grievances Committee: Any member having complaints or grievances affecting the organization or any member thereof, shall submit the same to the Committee on Complaints and Grievances. The Committee shall hear all complaints and grievances submitted to it and shall make a determined effort to settle in committee, all differences. Failing to effect a settlement, the matter shall be presented by Secretary of the committee to the Executive Committee of the local. It. shall review the entire case. The party failing to abide by the decision of the Executive Committee shall have the right of appeal to the Executive Council of the Ethiopian World Federation, Incorporated. The decision of the Executive Council shall be final.
ARTICLE VIII 
IMPEACHMENT OF AN OFFICER
Whenever an officer of any local shall practice malfeasance in office, or shall conduct himself in a manner unbecoming an officer, he shall be impeached. Any member of the Ethiopian World Federation, Incorporated, in good standing may present charges against an officer. Charges shall be in writing; whenever a charge is preferred against an officer, it shall first be presented to the Committee on Complaints and Grievances. This Committee shall hear and examine the evidence immediately upon presentation of the charges. Should the evidence be found insufficient to warrant a trail, the Committee on Complaints and Grievances, shall, by majority vote, dismiss the charges. Should the evidence warrant a trial, the committee shall recommend to the President suspension of the officer. The President shall suspend the officer, pending trial. Should the officer charged be the President, any recommendations for his suspension shall be made to the First Vice-President. The Committee on Complaints and Grievances, if it finds that a trial is warranted, shall submit the charges to the Executive Committee within twenty-four hours. The Executive Committee of the local shall hear these charges and on the evidence submitted on both sides render a fair decision. The defendant shall have the right of appeal to the Executive Council of the Ethiopian World Federation, Incorporated. The decision of the Executive Council shall be final.
ARTICLE IX 
UNITS
Section 1. A unit is a group within a local, which is required to perform certain specialized duties or task. The personnel of all units, appointed by the president, sha1l be subject to the approval of the Executive Committee.
(a). Medical: The Medical Unit shall constitute persons who are members of the medi¬cal, dental, pharmaceutical and nursing profes¬sion. It shall be their duty to give instructions, lectures and general information on health and other topics affecting the well-being of the membership. They shall give to any group desiring training, instruction in first aid, hygiene and preventive medicine. The local failing to include any of the above named professional persons in its membership shall form a medical unit among the lay members. This unit shall invite such members of the above named professions as are available to conduct classes and give instruction in the subjects aforementioned.
(b). Musical: Every local shall have the right to set up a Musical Unit. This unit shall consist of a band. orchestra and a choir. Each department shall have its own musical direc¬tor. The musical directors shall be qualified musicians.
(c). Juvenile: Every local shall have the right to set up a Juvenile Department and to determine its functions.
(d). Women's Auxiliary: Each local shall have the right to establish a Women's Auxiliary. It shall be the duty of the Women's Auxiliary to raise funds to be used for the expense of delegates to the Convention, to provide for the care, keep and comfort of international officers visiting the local on business, and for any other business which the Executive Committee shall decide.
ARTICLE X 
BENEFITS
Section 1. Benefits: All financial members of the Ethiopian World Federation, Incorporated, shall be entitled to the benefits hereafter mentioned:
(a). All applications for help shall be referred to the Sick Committee, which may recommend aid according to the circumstances of the case.
(b). The Ethiopian World Federation, Incorporated, shall attempt to make or find employment for its members who make application for such employment.
(c). Death: The Ethiopian World Federation, Incorporated, shall establish a burial fund; each member of the Ethiopian World Federation, Incorporated, in order to obtain the benefits of this burial fund shall have subscribed to the fund for at least one (1) year and shall be in good financial standing in the organization. The subscription to the burial fund shall be $.25 per month. Upon conclusive proof of death, the Ethiopian World Federation, Incorporated, shall subscribe from this fund the sum of One Hundred ($100.00) Dollars towards the funeral expense of the deceased. Any member who fails to subscribe to the burial fund for three months shall be unfinancial in this fund and shall not be entitled to the benefits of this fund Any member who is unfinancial in the Ethiopian World Federation, Incorporated, shall be classified as unfinancial in the burial fund. The Financial Secretary of the local shall collect from each member monthly the subscription to the burial fund.
ARTICLE XI 
OBSERVANCE OF NATIONAL HOLIDAYS
The Constitution may be amended by the following procedure:
1. Notice setting forth a copy of the proposed amendment shall be submitted at a regular Convention and shall require a majority vote for endorsement The Convention, shall set a time limit not exceeding one (l) year within which each local shall vote upon the proposed amendment The Executive Secretary shall transmit an official transcript of the endorsed amendment to each local. A majority vote in each local shall determine the vote of the local. The amendment shall be declared ratified when three-fourths of the total number of locals shall have voted affirmatively for the proposed amendment.
BY-LAWS
Section 1. 
Order of Business.
1. Call to Order by the Presiding Officer. 
2. Devotional Exercises. 
3. Roll Call of Officers. 
4. Remarks by the Presiding Officer. 
5. Reading of Minutes of the Previous Meeting. 
6. Unfinished Business. 
7. Communications. 
8. Applications for Membership. 
9. Report of Special Committees. 
10. Report of Standing Committees. 
11. Admission of New Members. 
12. Good and Welfare. 
13. Closing Remarks. 
14. Receipts of the Meeting. 
15. Adjournment.
Section 2. Monthly Reports.
All locals must send monthly reports and returns to the Headquarters.
Section 3. Names and Addresses of Officers.
The names and addresses of the officers of all locals must be filed at Headquarters. It is the duty of the local to send this information to the headquarters within ten days from the date of election.
Section 4.Tlime and Place of Regular Meetings. 
All locals shall inform the Headquarters of their time and place of regular meetings.
Section 5. Oath of Office.
Each elected officer shall take the following Oath of Office before he is installed:
(Repeat, with right band upraised.) 
I (Full Name) _________________________________________, solemnly pledge to uphold, defend and protect the Constitution of the Ethiopian World Federation, Incorporated, and to perform faithfully the duties of my office to the best of my ability. So help me God.
Section 6. 
Admission of New Members.
Each new member shall make the following pledge: 
(Repeat, with right arm upraised.) 
I solemnly pledge to do all that I can to carry out the aims and objects of the Ethiopian World Federation, Incorporated, and to abide by its Constitution and By-Laws.
Section 7. 
Appointment of Committees. The President shall appoint the chairmen and members of all committees, except in cases where provision is made in the Constitution for election of members to any committee.
Section 8. 
Removal of Officers. The President shall have the right to remove any officer from an appointive office.
Section 9.
All members, committees, and units must submit their suggestions, recommendations, findings, and reports to the Executive Committee for its approval, before such suggestions, recommendations, findings and reports shall be presented to the general body of the local.
Section 10. 
Application for Charter. All applications for charters shall be made to the Executive Council of the Ethiopian World Federation, Incorporated, on prescribed Application Forms. These forms can be obtained from the Headquarters upon, request.
Section 11. No officer or member shall discuss the business of the Ethiopian World Federation, Incorporated, in public or with any person or persons who are not active members of the Federation.
Section 12. Expense of Delegates. Each local shall bear the expenses of its own delegates and should in case it is found necessary for the Executive Council to send a special delegate or delegates to any local, that local may be required to pay the expenses of the delegate or delegates.

 

 

Attorney Lewis emphasized the oneness of the Black race everywhere, saying:
“The destiny of the Black man in Ethiopia is just as important to me as the destiny of the Black man in Harlem. A Black man from Jamaica or Trinidad or Georgia is the same. The white man has been trying to divide us on that issue for a long time. I believe in the omnipotence above and in the Bible. I believe that princes shall come out of Ethiopia. I believe that the destiny of the Black man is in the stars and soon will come to the realization of his destiny here on this earth. The difference between Black Americans and West Indians is that on the way from Africa, some of our foreparents dropped off in Jamaica and others came on to the United States.”
Mr Mathew E. Gardner, EWF Chairman said:
“We will profit by the mistakes of the past. In spite of past defeats, the work must go on until freedom is assured. The Ethiopian World Federation is THE ORGANIZATION, not merely an organization. Unity of all Black people in the United States, Africa and elsewhere is our goal. Soon the white man, our oppressor, will realize that the Black man is united.”

 

Dr.Melaku Beyen